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Fig. 4.6. Wind patterns in Jupiter's equatorial region and equatorial hotspot. Jupiter's atmospheric circulation is dominated by alternating jets of east/west (zonal) winds. The bands have different widths and wind speeds but have remained constant as long as telescopes and spacecraft have measured them. The top half of this Galileo spacecraft image lies within Jupiter's NEB, a westward (left) current. The bottom half shows part of the equatorial zone, a fast moving eastward current. The dark region near the center is an equatorial "hotspot". The clouds near the hotspot are the fastest moving features in the image, moving at -100 m s 1, or 224 miles per hour. The arrows show the winds measured by an observer moving eastward (right) at the speed of the hotspot, as though the hotspot is stationary while the rest of the planet moves around it. There is little cloud motion away from the hotspot, consistent with the idea that dry air is converging over this region and sinking, maintaining the cloud-free nature of the hotspot. North is at the top. (Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech).

Fig. 4.6. Wind patterns in Jupiter's equatorial region and equatorial hotspot. Jupiter's atmospheric circulation is dominated by alternating jets of east/west (zonal) winds. The bands have different widths and wind speeds but have remained constant as long as telescopes and spacecraft have measured them. The top half of this Galileo spacecraft image lies within Jupiter's NEB, a westward (left) current. The bottom half shows part of the equatorial zone, a fast moving eastward current. The dark region near the center is an equatorial "hotspot". The clouds near the hotspot are the fastest moving features in the image, moving at -100 m s 1, or 224 miles per hour. The arrows show the winds measured by an observer moving eastward (right) at the speed of the hotspot, as though the hotspot is stationary while the rest of the planet moves around it. There is little cloud motion away from the hotspot, consistent with the idea that dry air is converging over this region and sinking, maintaining the cloud-free nature of the hotspot. North is at the top. (Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech).

infrared because heat from the interior is leaking out through a hole in the upper layers of cloud [117]. These hotspots were a high priority for the Galileo spacecraft team [118].

The Galileo Probe descended through one of these "spots" and found little evidence of the ammonia cloud layer, only slight evidence for a cloud near the typical ammonium hydrosulfide cloud level, and no distinct water cloud [119]. Galileo data combined with that from the probe confirmed that these features mark where cold dry air is converging and being forced to descend. The hotspot examined by Galileo resided in an easterly jet stream. In effect, the prevailing eastward flow was "5

pouring straight down the hole, maintaining its form [120] (Fig. 4.7). Galileo data c ^

indicated that the humidity in the vicinity of the hot spot through which the probe £ o j-

descended ranged from 0.02 to 10% with the lowest value in the center [121]. This _c !iE J3

explains why the probe detected less water molecules than expected. As the hot gas V q ^

rises from the deep interior, the various volatiles precipitate out as rain. As the dry ^ Q. <D

air "turns over" at the top of the atmosphere, the winds converge and descend. By .2 £ i this point, there are no volatiles left to condense to form clouds, so a dry clearing ^O Mg is created. Then, as the cold air descends, the pressure rises and it is heated again. CCo

According to Glenn Orton, "these dry spots may grow and diminish, but they return in the same places, possibly because of the circulation patterns" [122].

Fig. 4.7. Three dimensional visualization of Jupiter's equatorial region. An equatorial "hotspot", a hole in the bright, reflective, equatorial cloud layer where warmer thermal emission from Jupiter's deep atmosphere can pass through. Dry air may be converging and sinking over these regions. The bright clouds to the right of the hotspot may be examples of upwelling moist air and condensation. This is a view from between cloud layers and above the streaks in the lower cloud leading toward the hotspot. The cloud streaks end near the hotspot, consistent with the idea that clouds traveling along these streaks descend and evaporate as they approach the hotspot. View is to northeast. (Credit: Courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech).

Fig. 4.7. Three dimensional visualization of Jupiter's equatorial region. An equatorial "hotspot", a hole in the bright, reflective, equatorial cloud layer where warmer thermal emission from Jupiter's deep atmosphere can pass through. Dry air may be converging and sinking over these regions. The bright clouds to the right of the hotspot may be examples of upwelling moist air and condensation. This is a view from between cloud layers and above the streaks in the lower cloud leading toward the hotspot. The cloud streaks end near the hotspot, consistent with the idea that clouds traveling along these streaks descend and evaporate as they approach the hotspot. View is to northeast. (Credit: Courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech).

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Renewable Energy Eco Friendly

Renewable Energy Eco Friendly

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable.

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