O

the resultant shock chemistry and subsequent photo-chemistry. Carbon dioxide was then produced from the photo-chemical evolution of CO and H2O [159].

The probe from the Galileo spacecraft made in situ measurements as it descended into Jupiter's cloud tops. The probe helped to determine that the helium abundance in Jupiter's atmosphere was in fact very close to what was expected, just under 25% of the solar value. By contrast, the abundances of methane, ammonia, and sulfur exceeded the solar abundances, which implies that the infall of small bodies such as comets into Jupiter has played an important roll in the planet's evolution. Also, argon, krypton, and xenon were found to be in much greater abundance than solar values, two to three times what was expected, meaning that Jupiter did not form solely from the solar nebula [160].

Now, with our more complete understanding of Jupiter's chemical composition, we know of these additional molecules in Jupiter's atmosphere: Hydrogen (H2), Methyl radical (CH3), Ethylene (C2H4), Methylacetylene (C3H4), Benzene (C6H6), Diacetylene (C4H2), Carbon dioxide (CO2), and the isotopes Deuterated hydrogen (HD), Monodeuterated methane (CH3D), Isotopic methane (13CH4), Isotopic ethane (13C2H6), Isotopic ammonia (15NH3), and tropospheric ices Water ice (H2OIce), and Ammonia ice (NH3 Ice) [161] (Kunde et al., supporting online information, pp 12-13, Science 2004). Also, argon, krypton, and xenon [162].

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