Australian Zoos That Currently Hold Koalas

Queensland

1 Alma Park Zoo, Kallangur

2 Australian Woolshed, Brisbane

3 Australia Zoo, Beerwah

4 Cairns Tropical Zoo, Clifton Beach

5 Cooberrie Park Flora and Fauna Sanctuary, Cooberrie

6 Currumbin Sanctuary, Gold Coast

7 David Fleay Wildlife Park, West Burleigh

8 Dreamworld, Coomera

9 Hamilton Island Koala Gallery, Hamilton Island

10 Hartley's Creek Crocodile Farm, Hartley's Creek

11 Illawong Fauna Sanctuary, Mirani

12 Koala and Wildlife Park, Kuranda

13 Koala Wildlife Park, Magnetic Island

14 Kumbartcho Wildlife Sanctuary (=Bunya Park Wildlife Sanctuary), Brisbane

15 Lone Pine Koala Sanctuary, Brisbane

16 Magnum Angora Stud, Jubilee Pocket

17 Paradise Country, Oxenford

18 Reef Casino, Cairns

19 Rainforestation, Kuranda

20 Rockhampton Botanic Gardens and Zoo, Rockhampton

21 Rainforest Habitat, Port Douglas

22 The Big Pineapple, Woombye

New South Wales

1 Angora Farm, Wellington

2 Australia Walkabout Wildlife Park, Calga

3 Australian Reptile Park, Gosford

4 Billabong Koala & Wildlife Park, Port Macquarie

5 Birdland Animal Park, Batehaven

6 Blackbutt Reserve, Newcastle

7 Coffs Harbour Zoo, Coffs Harbour

8 Ettamogah Wildlife Sanctuary, Albury

9 Fairfield City Farm, Sydney

10 Featherdale Wildlife Park, Sydney

11 Koala Park, Sydney

12 Nowra Animal Park, Nowra

13 Oakvale Farm & Fauna World, Newcastle

14 Rusa Park Zoo, Cessnock

15 Sydney Wildlife World, Sydney

16 Symbio Wildlife Gardens, Stanwell Tops

17 Taronga Zoo, Sydney

18 Waterways Wildlife Park, Gunnedah

19 Western Plains Zoo, Dubbo

20 Yellow Pinch Wildlife Park, Merimbula

Australian Capital Territory

1 National Zoo and Aquarium, Canberra

2 Rehwinkels Animal Park, Sutton

Victoria

1 Ace-Hi Ranch & Wildlife Park, Cape Schanck

2 Ballarat Wildlife Park, Ballarat

3 Bimbimbie Wildlife Park, Emerald

4 Cudgee Creek Wildlife Park, Cudgee Creek, Warrnambool

5 Halls Gap Wildlife Park & Zoo, Stawell

6 Healesville Sanctuary, Healesville

7 Jirrahlinga Wildlife Sanctuary, Barwon Heads

South Australia

1 Adelaide Zoo, Adelaide

2 Cleland Wildlife Park, Stirling

3 Valley Lake Wildlife Park, Mount Gambier

4 Urimbirra Park Wildlife Park, Urimbirra

5 Gorge Wildlife Park, Cudlee Creek

Western Australia

1 Adventure World, Bibra Lake

2 Caversham Wildlife Park, Whiteman

3 Cohunu Koala Park, Kelmscott

4 West Coast Wildlife Park (= Marapana Wildlife Park), Golden Bay

5 Peel Zoo, Ravenswood

3 Tidbinbilla Nature Reserve, Tharwa

8 Kyabram Fauna Park, Kyabram

9 Maru Craft, Grantville, near Phillip Island

10 Melbourne Zoo, Melbourne

11 Pearcedale Conservation Park, Pearcedale

12 Phillip Island Wildlife Park, Phillip Island

13 Phillip Island Nature Park, Phillip Island

14 Wildlife Wonderland, Bass, Gippsland

Trowana Wildlife Park, Mole Creek Zoo Doo Wildlife Park, Richmond

6 Kangaroo Island Wildlife Park, Kangaroo Island

7 Whyalla Wildlife & Reptile Sanctuary, Whyalla

8 Warrawong Wildlife Sanctuary, Stirling

9 Parndana Wildlife Park, Kangaroo Island

10 Glenforest Animal Park, Port Lincoln

6 Pentland Alpaca Stud & Tourist Farm, Denmark

7 Perth Zoo, South Perth

8 The Maze, Bullsbrook

9 Wave Rock Wildlife Park, Hyden

10 Yanchep National Park, Yanchep

Tasmania

1 Bonorong Wildlife Sanctuary, Brighton 4

2 Nature World, Bicheno 5

3 Something Wild, Mt Field National Park

Cover

Drawing of the koala with the first scientific description of the koala by Georg

Goldfuss in 1817. Goldfuss, G.A. (1817), in J.C.D. von Schreber (1774-1855),

Die Saugethiere, in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen. Fortgesetzt von

Chapter 1

1. Serventy, V. and Serventy, C. (1989), The Koala, Sydney: Child & Associates, p. 10.

2. Martin, R. and Handasyde, K. (1999), The Koala: Natural history, conservation and management, Sydney: UNSW Press.

3. Illiger, J.C.W. (1811), Prodromus systematis mammalium et avium addi-tis terminis zoographicis utriusque classis, eorumque versione Germanica, Berlin: Sumptibus C. Salfeld.

4. Cork, S. (1987), 'Introduction to the marsupials', in L. Cronin (ed.), Koala: Australia's endearing marsupial. Sydney: Reed Books, pp. 8-29.

5. de Blainville, H.M.D. (1816), 'Prodrome d'une nouvelle distribution systématique du règne animal', Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris 1816: 105-24; and de Blainville, H.M.D. (1834), Cours de lafaculte des sciences. Paris.

6. Darwin, C. (1859), The Origin of Species By Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life, London: John Murray. 1882 Sixth Edition.

7. Huxley, T. (1880), 'On the application of the laws of evolution to the arrangement of the vertebrate and more particularly of the Mammalia', Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 1880: 649-62.

8. Wroe, S. and Archer, M. (2006), 'Origins and early radiations of marsupials', in J.R. Merrick, M. Archer, G.M. Hickey and M.S.Y. Lee (eds), Evolution and biogeography ofAustralasian vertebrates, Sydney: Australian Science Publishing, pp. 551-74.

9. Lucas, S.G. and Lou, Z. (1993), 'Adelobasileus from the upper Triassic of west Texas: the oldest mammal', Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 13: 309-34.

10. Krause, D.W. (2001), 'Fossil molar from a Madagascan marsupial', Nature 412: 497-8.

11. Luo, Z.-X., Ji, Q., Wible, J.R. and Yuan, C.-X. (2003), 'An early cretaceous tribosphenic mammal and metatherian evolution', Science 302: 1934-40.

13. Ji, Q., Luo, Z.-X., Yuan, C.X., Wible, J.R., Zhang, J.P and Georgi, J.A. (2002), 'The earliest known eutherian mammal', Nature 416: 816-22.

14. Long, J., Archer, M., Flannery, T. and Hand, S. (2002), Prehistoric Mammals of Australia and New Guinea: One hundred million years of evolution, Sydney: UNSW Press.

15. Archer, M., Brammal, J., Field, J., Hand, S. and Hook, C. (2002), The Evolution of Australia: 110 million years of change, Sydney: Australian Museum.

16. Long et al. (2002). Anne Musser's painting appears on page 19.

17. White, M.E. (2006), 'Environments of the geological past', in J.R. Merrick, M. Archer, G.M. Hickey and M.S.Y. Lee (eds), Evolution and Biogeography of Australasian Vertebrates, Sydney: Auscipub, pp. 17-50.

18. For more information regarding Australia's prehistoric climate and fossil record, see Long et al. (2002) and Archer et al. (2002). The Riversleigh fossil deposits were gazetted as part of the Lawn Hill National Park in 1984, under the Queensland National Park and Wildlife Act 1975.

19. Black, K. (1999), 'Diversity and relationships of living and extinct koalas (Phascolarctidae, Marsupialia)', Australian Mammalogy 21: 16-17.

20. Louys, J., Black, K., Archer, M., Hand, S. and Godthelp, H. (2007), 'Descriptions of koala material from the Miocene of Riversleigh, northwestern Queensland and its implications for Litokoala (Marsupialia, Phascolarctidae)', Alcheringa. In press.

21. Archer, M., Hand, S.J. and Godthelp, H. (1991), Riversleigh: The story of animals in ancient rainforests of inland Australia, Sydney: Reed Books.

22. See Long et al. (2002). Anne Musser's painting appears on page 80.

24. Reed, E.H. and Bourne, S.J. (2000), Pleistocene fossil vertebrate sites of the south east region of South Australia. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 124: 61-90.

25. Archer, M. (1972), Phascolarctos (Marsupialia, Vombatidae) and associated fossil fauna from Koala Cave near Yanchep, Western Australia. Helictite 10: 49-59.

26. Glauert, L. (1910), The Mammoth Cave. Records of the Western Australian Museum and Art Gallery 1: 11-36.

27. Balme, J.M., Merrilees, D. and Porter, J.K. (1978), Late quaternary mammal remains, spanning about 30 000 years, from excavations in Devil's Lair, Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 61: 33-65.

28. Merrilees, D. (1969), A newly discovered bone-bearing deposit in Labyrinth Cave, near Augusta, Western Australia. The Western Australian Naturalist 11: 86-7.

29. Milham, IP and Thompson, IP (1976), Relative antiquity of human occupation and extinct fauna at Madura Cave, southwestern Western Australia. Mankind 10: 175-80.

30. Archer, M. (1981), A review of the origins and radiations ofAustralian mammals, pp. 1437-88, in A. Keast (ed.) EcologicalBiogeography of Australia. Dr W. Junk, The Hague, Boston.

31. See Martin & Handasyde (1999).

32. Kirsch, J.A.W., Lapointe, J.-F. and Springer, M.S. (1997), 'DNAhybridisation studies of marsupials and their implications for metatherian classification', Australian Journal of Zoology 45: 21180.

33. For further information on koala physiology, see Martin & Handasyde (1999).

34. Lee, A.K. and Carrick, F.N. (1989), 'Phascolarctidae', in D.W. Walton and B.J. Richardson (eds), Fauna of Australia. Vol. 1B, Canberra: AGPS, pp. 750-4.

35. Johnson, C. (2006), Australia's Mammal Extinctions: A 50,000year history, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Chapter 2

1. Massola, A. (1968), Bunjil's Cave: Myths, legends and superstitions of the Aborigines of south-east Australia, Melbourne: Landsdowne Press, p. 43.

2. Mathews, R.H. (1899), Folklore of the Australian Aborigines, Sydney: Hennessey, Harper & Co. Accessed 31 August 2007 via www.artistwd. com/joyzine/australia/dreaming/thurrawal.php.

3. Reed, A.W. (1978), Aboriginal Legends: Animal Tales, Sydney: A.H. & A.W. Reed, pp. 37-9.

4. Reed, A.W. (1965), Aboriginal Fables and Legendary Tales, Sydney: A.H. & A.W. Reed, pp. 69-71.

5. Reed, A.W. (1978), Aboriginal Legends, pp. 40-1.

6. Roberts, A. and Mountford, C.P (1965), The Dreamtime, Adelaide: Rigby, p. 34.

7. The Macquarie Concise Dictionary attributes the etymology to the Wembawemba Aborigines (Wergaia dialect in western Victoria) word banib.

9. Walsh, G.L. (1985), Didane the Koala, Brisbane: University of Queensland Press, pp. 2—36.

10. Smyth, R.B. (1878), The Aborigines of Victoria: With notes relating to the habits of the natives of other parts of Australia and Tasmania. Compiled from various sources for the Government of Victoria. Melbourne: John Ferres, Government Printer/Trubner and Co., p. 446.

11. Smyth (1878), The Aborigines ofVictoria, p. 447.

12. Clegg, J. (1988), 'Berowra Waters koala engravings', in D. Lunney, C.A. Urquhart and P. Reed (eds)(1990), Koala Summit: Managing koalas in New South Wales, Sydney: NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, pp. 93-106.

Chapter 3

1. Wood, T. (1934), Cobbers: A personal record of a journey from Essex, in England, to Australia, made in the years 1930, 1931, and 1932, London: Oxford University Press, p. 147.

2. Europeans first arrived to establish a penal settlement in Australia at Botany Bay in Sydney on 20 January 1788 and the nearby Sydney Cove on 26 January (now celebrated as Australia Day). On 13 May 1787, 1420 people left Portsmouth on board the 11 ships comprising the First Fleet, captained by Arthur Phillip (1373 people arrived in Sydney). Although the focus of this new settlement was to reduce the number of people in English jails, settlers would arrive from other British colonies (including those in Ireland, Scotland, Canada, New Zealand, Hong Kong Chinese and slaves from the Caribbean) and many showed a strong interest in the strange plants and animals of this new land known initially as New Holland or Terra Australis and subsequently Australia.

3. Phillip, A. (1789), The voyage of Governor Phillip to Botany Bay, with an account of the establishment of the colonies of Port Jackson & Norfolk Island. Compiled from authentic papers . . .To which are added the Journals of Lieuts. Shortland, Watts, Ball & Capt. Marshall, with an account of their discoveries, London: John Stockdale.

4. Bladen, F.M. (1895), Historical Records of New South Wales. Vol. III. Hunter. 1796-1799, Sydney: Charles Potter, p. 821.

5. Iredale, T. and Whitely, G.P. (1934), 'The early history of the koala', Victorian Naturalist 51: 62-72.

6. Anon (1803), 'Koala', Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, 21 August, p. 3.

7. Anon (1803), 'Koala', Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, 9 October, p. 3.

8. Bladen, F.M. (1897), Historical Records of New South Wales. Vol. V. King. 1803, 1804, 1805, Sydney: William Applegate Gullick, p. 228.

9. Everard Home would find later infamy as the Executor of the famous surgeon John Hunter's estate. Hunter was Home's brother-in-law but this did not stop Home publishing Hunter's discoveries as his own. Home burned most of Hunter's papers and documents to minimise the risk of his frauds being exposed.

10. Home, E. (1808), 'An account of some peculiarities in the anatomical structure of the wombat, with observations on the female organs of generation', Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 1808: 304-12.

11. George Perry clearly considered it impossible that the koala could evolve. Published in 1811, his Arcana predates by almost half a century the theory of evolution via natural selection first proposed by Charles Darwin in his Origin of Species.

12. Perry, G. (1810-11), Arcana, or, the Museum of Natural History, containing the most recent discovered objects, embellished with coloured plates and corresponding descriptions, with extracts relating to animals and remarks of celebrated travellers, combining a general survey of nature, London: James Stafford.

13. de Blainville, H.M.D. (1816), 'Prodrome d'une nouvelle distribution systematique du règne animal', Bulletin des Sciences par la Société Philomathique de Paris 1816: 105-24.

14. Goldfuss, G.A. (1817), in J.C.D. von Schreber (17741855), Die Saugethiere, in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen. Fortgesetzt von A. Goldfuss. Part 65, Plate CLV, Aa, Ab, Ac.

15. International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (1985), International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, Berkeley, CA: International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature/The British Museum of Natural History, London/University of California Press. The Code is a set of rules in zoology that have one fundamental aim, which is to provide the maximum universality and continuity in the naming of all animals according to taxonomic judgement. The use of two names to describe a species was developed by the self-proclaimed 'Prince of Botanists', Swedish-born naturalist Carl Linné or Carolus von Linneaus. His simple method required the genus name to be written in italics and with the initial letter capitalised (Phascolarctos) and the species name to be written entirely in lower case italics (cinereus). This method of classification replaced all other schemes, some of which had included eight or more words. The binomial system or 'two name system of naming' of nomenclature was officially launched with the tenth edition of Linnaeus' System Naturae, first published on 1 January 1758, in which Linnaeus described all species of plants and animals known to Europeans at that time.

16. The 'Buffon' Govatt refers to is G.L.L.C. de Buffon, whose massive (1749-88) Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière (Paris: Imprimeries Royale) was published over a period of over 40 years. Thirty-six volumes were completed during his lifetime, and a further eight were compiled posthumously. Despite its size, this publication was a bestseller throughout Europe (and in North America as well). Govatt, W.R. (1836), 'On the animals called "Monkeys" in New South Wales. Sketches of New South Wales. No. XIV', TheSaturday Magazine 288: 249-50.

17. Waterhouse, G.R. (1841), Marsupialia or Pouched Animals. Vol XI, The Naturalists' Library. Edinburgh: W.H. Lizars, p. 297.

18. Blandowski, W. (1855), 'Personal observations made in an excursion towards the central parts of Victoria, including Mount Macedon, McIvor, and Black Ranges', Transactions of the Philosophical Society of Victoria 1: 50-74.

19. Silesia is a historic region in central Europe, most of which is now contained within the borders of Poland, although there are small overflows into the Czech Republic and Germany.

21. Despite the skills in taxidermy John Gould acquired while at Windsor Castle, it has been said that the ambition which drove him was in large part fired by a desire to put as much distance between this background and him as possible. Whatever its origin, his ambition and drive vastly enriched Australian mammalogy and ornithology.

22. For background information on John Gould see A. Datta (1997), John Gould in Australia—Letters and Drawings, Melbourne: Melbourne University Press/The Natural History Museum, London. Gould's travels around Australia were published in 13 parts, collected into three volumes, between 1845 and 1863 as TheMammals of Australia. The volumes were illustrated by various artists, but primarily Gould's wife Elizabeth. After her death on the return voyage to England, following the birth of the couple's eighth child, Henry Richter completed the paintings.

23. Gould, J. (1845-63), The Mammals of Australia, 3 Vols, London: The Author. Republished with modern notes by J.M. Dixon (1983), Macmillan Australia, p. 36.

24. Gould, TheMammals of Australia, p. 36.

25. Gould, TheMammals of Australia, p. 34.

26. Krefft, G. (1871), Mammals of Australia, Sydney: Thomas Richards.

Chapter 4

1. Barrett, C. (1943), Koala: The Story of Australia's Native Bear, Melbourne: Robertson & Mullens, p. 21.

2. Serventy, V. and Serventy, C. (1989), The Koala, Sydney: Child & Associates, p. 10.

3. For more information on primary food sources, see B. Phillips (1990), Koalas: The little Australians we'd all hate to lose, Canberra: Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service; and S.M. Jackson (2003), Australian Mammals: Biology and Captive Management, Melbourne: CSIRO Press.

4. For background information on the specialist feeders, see H. Tyndale-Biscoe (2005), Life of Marsupials, Melbourne: CSIRO Publishing. I am also grateful to W. Foley for assistance he sent via email (correspondence 4 March 2007).

5. Cork, S. (1995), 'Life in a salad bowl', Nature Australia 25(2): 30-7.

6. Cork, S. (1987), 'Form and function of the koala', in L. Cronin (ed.), Koala: Australia's endearing marsupial, Sydney: Reed Books, pp. 31-55.

7. Tibballs, J. (1995), 'Clinical effects and management of Eucalyptus oil ingestion in infants and young children', Medical Journal of Australia 163: 177-80.

8. Gurr, F.W. and Scroggie, J.G. (1965), 'Eucalyptus oil poisoning treated by dialysis and mannitol infUsion with an appendix on the analysis of biological fluids for alcohol and eucalyptol', Australasian Annals of Medicine 14: 238-49.

11. W. Foley, email correspondence, 4 March 2007.

14. Logan, M. (2001), 'Evidence for the occurrence of rumination-like behaviour, or merycism in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus, Goldfuss)', Journal of Zoology (London) 255: 83-7.

15. Lanyon, J.M. and Sanson, G.D. (1986), 'Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) dentition and nutrition. II: Implications of tooth wear in nutrition', Journal of Zoology (London) A. 209: 168-81.

16. Haight, J.R. and Nelson, J.E. (1987), 'A brain that doesn't fit the skull: A comparative study of the brain and endocranium of the koala Phascolarctos cinereus (Marsupialia: Phascolarctidae)', in M. Archer (ed.), Possums and Opossums: Studies in Evolution, Sydney: Surrey Beatty & Sons/Royal Zoological Society of NSW, pp. 331-52.

17. Flannery, T.F. (1996), The Future Eaters, Sydney: Reed Books.

18. Pratt, A. (1937), Call of the Koala, Melbourne: Robertson & Mullens.

19. Congreve, P. and Betts, T.J. (1978), 'Eucalyptus plantations and preferences as food for a colony of koalas in Western Australia', in T.J. Bergin (ed.), The Koala: Proceedings of the Taronga symposium on koala biology, management and medicine, Sydney: Zoological Board of NSW, pp. 97-105.

20. U Nyo Tun (1993), 'Re-establishment of rehabilitated koalas in the wild and their use of habitat in Sheldon, Redland Shire, south-east Queensland with particular reference to dietary selection', MSc thesis, University of Queensland, Brisbane. Over the 12-month period, U Nyo Tun found that young foliage accounted for 5-35 per cent of the four koalas' diet, but mature foliage accounted for 50-90 per cent.

21. For the links between the water content of Eucalyptus foliage and the koala's minimum water requirements, see Hume, I.D. and Esson, C. (1993), 'Nutrients, antinutrients and leaf selection by captive koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus)', Australian Journal of Zoology 41: 379-92; and Pahl, L.I. and Hume, I.D. (1990), 'Preferences for Eucalyptus species of the New England Tablelands and an initial development of an artificial diet for koalas', in A.K. Lee, K.A. Lee and G.D. Sanson (eds), Biology of the Koala, Sydney: Surrey Beatty, pp. 123-8.

22. Melzer, A. (1994), 'Aspects of the ecology of the koala, Phascolarctos cinereus (Goldfuss, 1817), in the sub-humid woodlands of Central Queensland', PhD thesis, University of Queensland, Brisbane.

23. Ellis, W.A.H., Melzer, A., Green, B., Newgrain, K., Hindell, M.A. and Carrick, F.N. (1995), 'Seasonal variation in water flux, field metabolic rate and food consumption of freeranging koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus)', Australian Journal of Zoology 43: 59-68.

24. Ullrey, D.E., Robinson, P.T. and Whetter, P.A. (1981), 'Composition of preferred and rejected Eucalyptus browse offered to captive koalas, Phascolarctos cinereus (Marsupialia)', Australian Journal of Zoology 29: 839-46.

25. Zoidis, A.M. and Markowitz, H. (2005), 'Findings from a feedings study of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus adustus) at the San Francisco Zoo', Zoo Biology 11: 417-31.

26. Examples of references include Cork, S.J. and Sanson, G.D. (1990). Digestion and nutrition in the koala: a review. pp. 129-44. A.K. Lee, K.A. Handasyde and G.D. Sanson (eds.) Biology of the Koala. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Sydney; Braithwaite, L.W., Dudzinski, M.L. & Turner, J. (1983) Studies on the arboreal marsupials fauna of eucalypt forests being harvested for pulpwood at Eden, N.S.W II. Relationship between the fauna of density, richness and diversity, measured variables of the habitat. Australian Wildlife Research 10: 231-47; Moore, B.D. and Foley, W.J. (2000), 'A review of feeding and diet selection in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus)', Australian Journal of Zoology 48: 317-33.

27. Moore, B.D. and Foley, W.J. (2000), 'A review of feeding and diet selection in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus)', Australian Journal of Zool ogy 48: 317—33; W. Foley, email correspondence with the author, 4 March 2007.

28. Moore, B.D. and Foley, W.J. (2005), 'Tree use by koalas in a chemically complex landscape', Nature 435: 488-90.

29. Moore, B.D., Foley, W.J., Wallis, I.R., Cowling, A. and Handasyde, K.A. (2005), 'Eucalyptus foliar chemistry explains selective feeding by koalas', Biology Letters 1: 64-7.

30. Lawler, I.R., Stapley, J., Foley, W.J. and Eschler, B.M. (1999), 'Ecological example of conditioned flavour aversion in plant-herbivore interactions: Effect of terpenes of Eucalyptus leaves on feeding by common ringtail and brushtail possums', Journal of Chemical Ecology 25: 401-15.

32. Moore, B.D., Wallis, I.R., Wood, J.T. and Foley, W.J. (2004), 'Foliar nutrition, site quality, and temperature influence foliar chemistry of tallowwood (Eucalyptus microcorys)', Ecological Monographs 74: 55368.

33. W. Foley, email correspondence with author, 4 March 2007.

34. See Moore & Foley (2005). Martin, R. and Handasyde, K. (1999), The Koala: Natural history, conservation and management, Sydney: UNSW Press. Dr Ben Moore provided the information on leaf consumption for Martin & Handasyde's book.

35. B. Moore, email correspondence with author, 11 April 2006. Dr Moore supplied the figure for the book published by Martin & Handasyde (1999).

36. Krockenberger, A. (2003), 'Meeting the energy demands of reproduction in female koalas, Phascolarctos cinereus: Evidence for energy compensation', Journal of Comparative Physiology B 173: 531-40.

37. Krockenberger, A.K. (1996), 'Composition of the milk of the koala, Phascolarctos cinereus, an arboreal folivore', Physiological Zoology 69: 701-18.

38. Osawa, R., Blanshard, W.H. and O'Callaghan, P.G. (1993), 'Microbiological studies of the intestinal microflora of the koala, Phascolarctos cinereus. II. Pap, a special maternal faeces consumed by juvenile koalas', Australian Journal of Zoology 41: 611-20.

39. Hindell, M.A. and Lee, A.K. (1988), 'Tree use by individual koalas in a natural forest', Australian Wildlife Research 17: 1-7.

40. Melzer, A. and Houston, W. (2001), 'An overview of the understanding of koala ecology: How much more do we need to know', in K. Lyons, A. Melzer, F. Carrick and D. Lamb (eds), The research and management of non-urban koala populations, Rockhampton: Koala Research Centre of Central Queensland/Central Queensland University, pp. 6-45.

42. See Martin & Handasyde (1999).

Chapter 5

1. Gould, J. (1845-63), The Mammals ofAustralia, London: the author. Republished with modern notes by J.M. Dixon. Macmillan Australia. (1983).

2. Mitchell, P.J. (1991a), 'The home ranges and social activity of koalas—a quantitative analysis', in A.K. Lee, K.A. Handasyde and G.D. Sanson (eds), Biology of the Koala, Sydney: Surrey Beatty, pp. 171-87.

3. Smith, M.T.A. (1979a), 'Behaviour of the koala, Phascolarctos cinereus (Goldfuss) in captivity. I. Non-social behaviour', Australian Wildlife Research 6: 117-28. Despite the amount of indigestible material the koala consumes it defecates almost as rarely as it urinates. Typically, the koala will defecate while resting, and an adult koala will produce around 78 dry pellets a day.

4. Degabriele, R. and Dawson, T. (1979), 'Metabolism and heat balance in an arboreal marsupial, the koala Phascolarctos cinereus , Journal of Comparative Physiology B 134: 293-301.

5. See Mitchell (1991a).

6. Robbins, M. and Russell, E. (1978), 'Observations on movements and feeding activity of the koala in a semi-natural situation', in T.J. Bergin (ed.), The Koala: The proceedings of the Taronga symposium, Sydney: Zoological Parks Board of NSW, pp. 29-41. Of the 34 per cent of feeding behaviour that occurred during the day, Robbins and Russell found that most took place between 1600 and 2000 hours. Some feeding behaviour was observed between 1100 and 1400 hours.

7. Sharp, L.L. (1980), 'Behaviour of the koala Phascolarctos cinereus (Goldfuss)', BSc (Hons) thesis, Monash University, Melbourne.

8. Logan, M. and Sanson, G.D. (2003), 'The effect of lactation on the feeding behaviour and activity patterns of freeranging female koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus Goldfuss)', Australian Journal of Zoology 51: 415—28.

9. Logan, M. and Sanson, G.D. (2002), 'The effects of tooth wear on the activity patterns of free-ranging koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus Goldfuss)', Australian Journal of Zoology 50: 281—92.

10. See Smith (1979a). Smith found the hand was used for only 6.8 per cent of grooming motions, the mouth for 5.2 per cent and that the koala used its inbuilt comb on 88 per cent of occasions.

11. See Mitchell (1991a).

12. See a review by Melzer, A. and Houston, W. (2001), An overview of the understanding of koala ecology: how much more do we need to know. pp. 6-45. In K. Lyons, A. Melzer, F. Carrick & D. Lamb (eds.) The Research and Management of Non-urban Koala Populations. Central Queensland University, Rockhampton.

13. See Mitchell (1991a).

14. Ellis, W.A., Hale, PT. and Carrick, F. (2002), 'Breeding dynamics of koalas in open woodlands', Wildlife Research 29: 19-25.

15. Mitchell, P.J. (1991b), 'Social behaviour and communication of koalas', in A.K. Lee, K.A. Handasyde and G.D. Sanson (eds), Biology of the Koala, Sydney: Surrey Beatty, pp. 151-70.

16. Mitchell, P.J. (1991c), 'The home ranges and social activity of koalas—a quantitative analysis', in A.K. Lee, K.A. Handasyde and G.D. Sanson (eds), Biology of the Koala, Sydney: Surrey Beatty, pp. 17187.

17. Martin, R. and Handasyde, K. (1999), The Koala: Natural history, conservation and management, Sydney: UNSW Press.

18. Bercovitch, F.B., Tobey, J.R., Andrus, C.H. and Doyle, L. (2006), 'Mating patterns and reproductive success in captive koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus)', Journal of Zoology 270: 512-16.

19. Smith, M.T.A. (1980b), 'Behaviour of the koala, Phascolarctos cinereus (Goldfuss), in captivity. IV. Scent-marking', Australian Wildlife Research 7: 35-40.

20. Smith, M.T.A. (1980d), 'Behaviour of the koala, Phascolarctos cinereus

(Goldfuss), in captivity. VI. Aggression', Australian Wildlife Research 7: 41-51.

21. Smith, M.T.A. (1980a), 'Behaviour of the koala, Phascolarctos cinereus (GoldfUss), in captivity. III. Vocalisations', Australian Wildlife Research 7: 13-34.

22. Barrett, C. (1943), An Australian Animal Book, Melbourne: Oxford University Press. p. 55.

23. Logan, M. and Sanson, G. D. (2002), 'The association of tooth wear with sociality of free-ranging male koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus GoldfUss)', Australian Journal of Zoology 50: 621-6.

25. Smith, M.T.A. (1980c), 'Behaviour of the koala, Phascolarctos cinereus (Goldfuss), in captivity. V. Sexual behaviour', Australian Wildlife Research 7: 41-51.

26. See Bercovitch et al. (in press).

27. Melzer, A. and Houston, W. (2001), 'An overview of the understanding of koala ecology: How much more do we need to know?', in K. Lyons, A. Melzer, F. Carrick and D. Lamb (eds), The Research and Management of Non-urban Koala Populations, Rockhampton: Koala Research Centre of Central Queensland/Central Queensland University, pp. 6-45.

28. Martin, R.W. (1981), 'Age-specific fertility in three populations of the koala, Phascolarctos cinereus (Goldfuss), in Victoria', Australian Wildlife Research 8: 275-83.

29. Smith, M.T.A. (1979b), 'Behaviour of the koala, Phascolarctos cinereus (Goldfuss) in captivity. II. Parental and infantile behaviour', Australian Wildlife Research 6: 131-40.

32. See Martin & Handasyde (1999).

Chapter 6

1. Crandall, L.S. (1964), The Management ofWild Mammals in Captivity, Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, p. 28.

2. Flower, W.H. (1880), 'Additions to the menagerie', Proceedings ofthe Zoological Society of London 1880: 355-6.

3. Forbes, W.A. (1881), 'On some points in the anatomy of the koala

(Phascolarctos cinereus)', Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1881: 180-94.

4. Sclater, P.L. (1882), 'Additions to the menagerie', Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1882: 547.

6. Lone Pine Koala Sanctuary—History at www.koala.net/media/medi akit.pdf. Accessed 1 November 2006.

7. Burnett, N. (1932), The Blue Gum Family at Koala Park, Sydney: W.A. Pepperday & Co. Ltd.

8. Given that Taronga Zoo had been keeping koalas for over 20 years by this time, it must be assumed that the early records are incomplete. If animals of both sexes were kept together, it is extremely unlikely that there would have been no successful births during this time.

9. Michial Farrow, Adelaide City Archives, email correspondence with the author, 22 May 2006. Information on Adelaide Koala Park is taken from 'Town Clerk's Special File 132—Snake Park', Date 192655. Accession 0352.

10. Michial Farrow, email correspondence with the author, 15 February 2007.

11. For further information on the arrival and early management of koalas in the United States see Crandall, TheManagement of Wild Animals in Captivity.

12. Santos, R.L. (1997), The Eucalyptus of California, Stanislaus: California State University.

13. See N.C. Shepherd (1978), 'The legal status of the koala in the eastern states of Australia', in T.J. Bergin (ed.), The Koala: The proceedings of the Taronga symposium, Sydney: Zoological Parks Board of NSW, pp. 203-12. The restriction was made under the Regulation 4 of the Customs (Prohibited Exports) Regulation made under section 112 of the Customs Act 1901. This states that goods specified in the second schedule (including native fauna or parts thereof) may not be exported unless the prior consent of the minister holding the Customs portfolio has been obtained. See also C. Barrett (1943), Koala: The story of Australia's native bear, Melbourne: Robertson & Mullens; and Department of Environment and Heritage (2004), Conditions for the Overseas Transfer of Koalas, Canberra: Department of Environment and Heritage.

14. See Crandall (1964).

15. Email correspondence between the author and Chris Hamlin, Koala Loan Program Coordinator, San Diego Zoo, 9 June 2006.

16. Email correspondence between the author and anonymous person at Los Angeles Zoo, 30 June 2006. A full history can be found in S. Ransom (1982), 'The saga of six koalas', Zoo View (Spring): 12-13.

17. I am grateful to Achim Winkler, Director of Zoo Duisburg in Germany, for this information, sent via email 20 April 2006. Herr Winkler is the coordinator for the European koala zoo population and provided the details of all zoos currently holding koalas in Europe and those that have held them relatively recently. San Diego Zoo's loans to zoos in Europe began with Dublin Zoo receiving a pair of animals in 1988, followed by London Zoo in 1989. Subsequently koalas were sent to Lisbon Zoo (1991), Antwerp Zoo (1993), Zoo Duisburg (1994), Barcelona Zoo (1994), Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde (1994), Wild Animal Park Planckendael in Belgium (1998), Zoo Aquarium Madrid (2001), Zoo Parc de Beauval in France (2002), Zoo Vienna (2002) and, most recently, Edinburgh Zoo and Skansen Akvariet Zoo in Sweden (2005).

18. Numerous reports were made of the theft of the koalas from San Francisco Zoo, including Reuters, 'Two koalas stolen from San Francisco Zoo', published online 28 December 2000. Accessed 24 April 2006; Berkeley Daily Planet, 29 December 2000. Accessed 24 April 2006; and Harpers Magazine, 'Weekly Review', posted 2 January 2001. Accessed 24 April 2006.

19. Email correspondence between the author and Achim Winkler, Director of Zoo Duisburg, 7 March 2007.

20. Email correspondence between the author and Regina Pfis-termuller, Assistant Curator, Research Manager, Zoo Vienna, 18 April 2006.

21. Email correspondence between the author and Achim Winkler, Director of Zoo Duisburg, 7 March 2007.

22. Email correspondence between the author and Chris Hamlin, Koala Loan Program Coordinator at San Diego Zoo, 14 May 2006.

23. Osawa, R. (1986), 'Koala management in Japan', pp. 23-6, in Koala management: Proceedings of the Australian Koala Foundation Inc. confer ence, Brisbane: Queensland National Parks and Wildlife Service.

24. Hunter, S. (1987), The Official Koala Handbook. London: Chatto & Windus.

25. Jackson, S.M. (2001), 'Koalas', in C. Bell (ed.), Encyclopedia of the World's Zoos, Chicago, 1ll.: Fitzroy Dearborn, pp. 687-90.

26. Serventy, V. and Serventy, C. (1989), The Koala, Sydney: Child & Associates.

27. See Israel21c (2002), 'Kangaroo park operator aims to keep the joint jumping', posted 1 April 2002 at www.israel21c.org (accessed on 25 March 2007); and The Jewish News Weekly of Northern California (2003), 'Israel welcomes furry olim—Didgee the koala lifts spirits', 17 January 2003 at www.jewishsf.com/content/2-0-/module/displaystory/story_id/19608/ edition_id/398/ format/ html/displaystory.html (accessed on 25 March 2007).

28. The draft agreement between the Australian Government and an oversees zoo for the transaction of koalas includes a condition that says the oversees zoo 'agrees that it will not loan, move, trade or transfer any animal(s) to another organisation or locality without the prior written agreement of DEH'.

29. United States Environmental Protection Agency (2000) Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants: Final Determination of Threatened Status of the Koala. Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. 9 May 2000. Federal Register. Volume 65, Number 90. Internet address: www.epa.gov.fedrgstr/EPA-SPECIES/2000/May/Day-09/e11507. htm. The ruling states on page 26769 that 'These prohibitions make it illegal for any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States to take, import or export, ship interstate commerce in the course of commercial activity, or sell or offer for sale in interstate or foreign commerce any threatened wildlife'. Though it does mention that 'certain exceptions apply to agents of the Service and State conservation agencies' without listing them.

30. Australian Koala Foundation. Sponsors and Supports. Internet address: www.savethekoala.com/sponsors.html. Accessed 16 July 2007.

31. The Sydney Morning Herald, 'Bardot Blasts Elephant-Koala Exchange Ring', 17 February 2005.

32. Darby, A. (2006), 'Skippy for elephants: Alarm at zoo wildlife trade', The Sydney Morning Herald, 18 February 2006.

33. Ewin Hannan and Peter Alford (2006), 'Dying animals halt zoo transfer', The Australian, 17 April 2006.

34. Australian Embassy, Thailand (2006), 'Press Release. Four Koalas on Show at Chiang Mai Zoo'. Internet address: www.austembassy.or.th/ bkok/PRelease88.htm. Accessed 17 January 2007.

35. Mitchell, A. (2006), 'Koalas can't bear being sent to China: activists', The Sun Herald, 23 April 2006.

36. Xinhua News Agency, 'Australian koalas to settle down in South China', article posted on 5 April 2006. Accessed 20 April 2006. The controversy was also covered by A Current Affair in their segment, 'China-bound koalas cause a stir', broadcast on 18 April 2006.

37. ABC News (2007) Gold Coast monitors China koala twins. Posted 14 May 2007. Internet address: ww.abc.net.au/news/sto ries/2007/05/l4/1921852.htm. Accessed 16 July 2007.

38. Anon (1803), 'Koala', Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, 9 October, p. 3.

39. Hull, A.F.B. (1941), 'Koalas and artificial foods', Proceedings of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales 1941: 49.

40. Pahl, L.I. and Hume, I.D. (1990), 'Preferences for Eucalyptus species of the New England Tablelands and an initial development of an artificial diet for koalas', in A.K. Lee, K.A. Lee and G.D. Sanson (eds), Biology of the Koala, Sydney: Surrey Beatty, pp. 123—8. The biscuits had a cell wall content of 24 per cent, cellulose content 16 per cent, lignin content 3 per cent, ash content 6 per cent, nitrogen content of 1.9 per cent and a moisture content of 62 per cent.

41. Pratt, A. (1937), The Call of the Koala, Melbourne: Robertson & Mullens, p. 40.

42. Jackson, S.M. (2003), Australian Mammals: Biology and captive management, Melbourne: CSIRO Publishing.

43. Martin, R. and Handasyde, K. (1999), The Koala: Natural history, conservation and management, Sydney: UNSW Press.

44. Johnson, K., Lees, C. and Ford, C. (eds) (2006), Australasian Species Management Program. Regional census and plan, 16th edn, Sydney: Australasian Regional Association of Zoological Parks and Aquaria.

45. A complete review of all zoos in Australia revealed there are 85 zoos that currently hold koalas, with at least one in Western Australia that is close to completing its koala house. Queensland, with 23, has the most, New South Wales has 20, Victoria 14, South Australia and Western Australia together have ten, Tasmania five and the Australian Capital Territory three.

47. Hundloe, T. and Hamilton, C. (1997), Koalas and Tourism: An economic evaluation. Discussion Paper 13, Canberra: The Australia Institute.

Chapter 7

1. Pratt, A. (1937), The Call of the Koala, Melbourne: Robertson & Mullens, p. 13.

2. De Vis, C.W. (1889), 'On the Phalangeridae of the post-Tertiary period in Queensland', Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland 6: 105—14.

3. Bartholomai, A. (1968), 'A new fossil koala from Queensland and a reassessment of the taxonomic position of the problematical species Koa-lemus ingens De Vis', Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 15: 65—71.

4. Gould, J. (1845-1863), The Mammals of Australia, London: the author, p. 34. Republished with modern notes by J.M. Dixon. Macmillan Australia. (1983).

5. Martin, R. and Handasyde, K. (1999), The Koala: Natural history, conservation and management, Sydney: UNSW Press.

6. Strahan, R. and Martin, R.W. (1982), 'The koala: little fact, much emotion', in R.G. Groves and W.D.L. Ride (eds), Species at Risk: Research in Australia, Canberra: Australian Academy of Science, pp. 147-55, p. 152.

7. Originally published by Pedley, E.C. (1899) The Exciting Adventures of Dot and the Kangaroo, London: Thomas Burleigh. Text accessed 1 July 2007 via www.fullbooks.com/Dot-and-the-Kangaroo1.html. Chapter VI.

8. Lindsay, N. (1918), The Magic Pudding: Being the adventures of Bunyip Bluegum and his friends Bill Barnacle and Sam Sawnoff, Sydney: Angus & Robertson.

9. Bolton, G.C. (1992), Spoils and Spoilers: A history ofAustralians shaping their environment, Sydney: Allen & Unwin.

10. Lucas, A.H.S. and Le Souef, W.H.D. (1909), The Animals of Aus tralia: Mammals, reptiles, and amphibians, Melbourne: Whitcombe & Tombs, p. 91.

11. Le Souef, A.S. and Burrell, H. (1926), The Wild animals ofAustralasia, London: Harrap, p. 291.

12. Burnett, N. (1932), The Blue Gum Family at Koala Park, Sydney: W.A. Pepperday & Co., p. 29.

13. Wall, D. (1933), Blinky Bill: The quaint little Australian, Sydney: Angus & Robertson. In 1934, Blinky Bill and Nutsy and Blinky Bill Grows Up were published. The Complete Adventures of Blinky Bill was first published in 1939.

14. Pratt, A. (1937), The Call of the Koala, Melbourne: Robertson & Mullens, p. 13.

15. See 'Teddy "B" Bear' at www.npg.si.edu/exh/roosevelt/tbear.htm (accessed 22 January 2007) and The History of the Teddy Bear by Marianne Clay at www.teddybearandfriends.com/archive/articles/his tory.html (accessed 13 July 2007). The first such cartoon, showing Roosevelt holding a rifle but refusing to shoot the bear, was drawn by Clifford K. Berryman and was published on 16 November in The Washington Post. It was titled 'Drawing the line in Mississipi', which was a clever words as Roosevelt was drawing a line—settling a border dispute between Mississippi and Louisiana and refusing to shoot a captive animal.

16. Email correspondence between the author and Charles Markis of Sagamore Hill National Historic Site, 13 July 2007.

18. For 'Noozles' see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noozles (date accessed 24 August 2006).

19. This cartoon is based on a picture book series by Anne Gutman (Story) and Georg Hallensleben (Illustration). See Nippon Animation at www.nipponanimation.com (date accessed 2 March 2007).

20. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Koala_Brothers (date accessed 24 August 2006).

21. Email correspondence between the author and Nick Barrington, Spellbound Entertainment Limited, 11 May 2007.

22. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Koala_Kong (date accessed 24 August 2006).

23. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guru_(Sly_Cooper) (date accessed 24 August 2006)

24. Milton Black (2000), 'Dreamtime Horoscopes. Koala (July). Romantic Dreamer', at www.miltonblack.com.au/ast/dreamtime /july.htm (date accessed 27 January 2006).

Chapter 8

1. John Hill (2005), 'Koala Crisis Fixed With $4 Million Injection', media release dated 23 May 2005 at www.ministers.sa.gov.au/minister. asp?mId=10&pId=6&sId=4612 (date accessed 2 January 2006).

2. These include six islands off the Queensland coast, one in inland New South Wales and one off the Tasmanian coast. Koala populations have also been established on a further seven islands off the Victorian coast, and three inland islands, while in South Australia animals have been translocated to Kangaroo Island off the coast and Goat Island in the Murray River. See the table below for the area (in hectares) of islands which currently or have previously held koala populations.

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    Where can you hold a koala in sydney?
    2 years ago

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