Meanie 2 (B ) Athena (W) Ceres (W) Diana (W)
Moses (DRl) Faith (DR2) Hope (DR2) Love (DR2 )
" Ranging data were collected on adult focal animals in core groups 1, 2, and 4. The names of focal animals are in italics. Individuals with radio-collars are further identified with an asterisk.
b Ranging data were collected on Glow and Petit Blanc only in the last month of the study, Dec 1994. In the latter month, Petit Blanc was observed in both core groups 2 and 5 guarding infants (Vasey, in press).
' Red NC disappeared from the study area several months after data collection began. Red then adopted Red NC's offspring, Socks and Stockings (Vasey, in press).
d The initials of each infant's mother appear in parentheses after the infant's name. The sex of infants and yearlings was not determined during the study. ' It is not known whether infants were born into core group 5 in 1993.
battles. A concurrent study of E. f. albifrons was taking place, and we additionally mapped 505 feeding trees used by this sympatric lemurid. To reconstruct ranging variables for later analysis, I noted the location of the focal animal each time it entered a new feeding, resting, nesting, or infant stashing tree. For travel that was not directed toward these types of trees, which was rare, I noted the nearest trail marker or marked tree as its locality. If the animal was nowhere near a trail or marked tree, the location was marked with flagging tape and a new landmark was later mapped with reference to the trail system.
Pathfinder (Winslett, 1989) was used to create a mapping database, derive descriptive statistics for ranging variables, and graph animal travel patterns within the home range. This software application is designed to process data that have been collected using a trail system, rather than a coordinate system. The communal home range area, core areas, and forest areas used by individuals were calculated by Pathfinder from minimum convex polygons enclosing travel routes made by animals during focal animal observation sessions. Daily distances traveled were derived by Pathfinder by summing the linear distance between trees and trail points crossed or visited by focal animals during the course of full-day observation periods (8 hours or more). Data records for ranging variables were pooled according to sex, month, season, and reproductive stage. To test for differences based on sex, month, season, and reproductive stage, I employed i-tests assuming unequal variance (two-tailed) or Kruskal-Wallis tests. Standard notation for significance values is used (*** = 0.001, ** = 0.01, * = 0.05; ns = not significant; Sokal and Rohlf, 1981).
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