Info

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noL: no leaves; sBsL: sprouting buds and/or sprouting leaves; sBsLyL: sprouting buds and/or sprouting leaves and/or young leaves; yL: young leaves; mL: mature leaves; odL: old and/or deciduous leaves; icF: reduced foliage; Flo: flowers; Fr: fruit. * 0.01 <p< 0.05, **0.001 <p< 0.01, ***p< 0.001; ns, not significant.

noL: no leaves; sBsL: sprouting buds and/or sprouting leaves; sBsLyL: sprouting buds and/or sprouting leaves and/or young leaves; yL: young leaves; mL: mature leaves; odL: old and/or deciduous leaves; icF: reduced foliage; Flo: flowers; Fr: fruit. * 0.01 <p< 0.05, **0.001 <p< 0.01, ***p< 0.001; ns, not significant.

Observations

Visibility (Appendix A-III). Visibility was analyzed to assess comparability of observation data. Overall, visibility is not significantly different between Avahi and Lepilemur, but there is considerable variation. A larger sample might possibly result in significant differences caused by the fact that a group of animals (Avahi) is easier to locate and follow than single individuals as in Lepilemur. Indeed, visibility in Lepilemur is significantly positively correlated with development of leaf cover (Spearman rank correlation, p <0.05).

Activity Period. Both species were definitely nocturnal, although Avahi was sometimes seen moving and feeding during daylight in the rainy season, i.e, when leaf cover was very dense.

Onset and Cessation of Activity. Avahi and Lepilemur start their activity shortly after sunset when light conditions make it difficult to read. Onset is significantly correlated with the time of sunset in both, Avahi (Spearman rank correlation, n = 12, r =0.99, p<0.0001) and Lepilemur (Spearman rank correlation, n =12, r = 0.92, p <0.0001). Conversely, the end of the activity period is not significantly correlated with sunrise.

Length of Activity (Figure 4, Appendix A-III). The length of the active period (sleep tree in the evening to sleep tree in the morning) is significantly correlated with the length of the night (sunset to sunrise) in the male Avahi A1m and the male Lepilemur L1m. It is not quite significant in the female Lepilemur L2f (p =0.0586) but it is significant for Lepilemur male and female taken together. The activity period of the male Avahi A1m is not significantly longer than the active period of the Lepilemur male L1m, female L2f or Lepilemur male and female taken together. Within Lepilemur there is no significant difference between male and female. Although animals adjust their active time to some degree to the length of the night, this difference is not very obvious. It seems that animals reduce their active time during the rainy season but only slightly increase their active time during the lean dry season. There is a significant correlation between length of the active period between Avahi and Lepilemur over the year (Spearman

Behavior and Ecology of Woolly Lemurs and Sportive Lemurs 335 Night length and length of activity

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