Figure 2. Rates of mutual-grooming (MGR), allo-grooming (AGR), and self-grooming (SGR) for food availability and food scarcity periods. * = 0.05, ** = 0.04, *** = 0.0001.


Three kinds of scent-marking were observed: anogenital marking (AGM, n = 1206), head-marking (HDM, n = 86), and palmar-marking (PMK, n = 186). Males anogenital scent-marked almost twice as much as females (male rate 0.51/hr, female rate 0.29/hr %2 = 6.54, df =1, p <0.02) and only males head-marked and palmar-marked. During palmar-marking, the male quickly rubbed both hands around a branch in a frantic, stereotypical motion like hand washing. Branches were the primary marking surface for both males and females (n = 1170) but only males were observed to directly mark females (n = 36 on her back or side). The female, however, was always within 5 m of the male when he scent-marked objects.

Head-marking and palmar-marking rates were slightly higher during food availability, although this relationship was not significant (HDM rate 0.06/hr; PMK rate 0.12/hr). Anogenital marking rates, however, showed significant seasonal

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