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Figure 10.6 The Klipsch horn. a: Relative placement of the sound emitter, the horn, and the bulb. b: Equivalent circuit for sound energy in a Klipsch horn. The bulb acts as a capacitor in series with the emitter and the horn, which acts as a resistor.

ment of the air space of the horn, the vibrating emitter of sound—either the lips of the musician or a reed— and a capacious bulb corresponding to the musician's mouth cavity (Fig. 10.6). This configuration is known as a Klipsch horn.

The sound emitter in a Klipsch horn does both capacitative and inertial work on the air that surrounds it. Because the horn is open at one end, however, the emitter will do mostly inertial work on the air in it. Air in the bulb, being enclosed, will have mostly capacitative work done on it. Acoustically, the Klipsch horn is like a resistor and capacitor in series. This arrangement makes the air in the horn resonate more strongly and leads to a very efficient conversion of in-ertial and capacitative work to sound. Just as the frequency of a resonant system of springs and masses can be "tuned" by adjusting mass and stiffness, the resonant frequency of a Klipsch horn can be tuned by adjusting the volume of the bulb and the length of the horn.

Klipsch horns also expand the range of frequencies that horns can transmit. Despite all the wonderful things horns do, they do labor under some limitations. Horns generally will not perform well if the sound's

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