Readings

1. The Organism's Fuzzy Boundary

Benson, K. R. (1989). Biology's "Phoenix": Historical perspectives on the importance of the organism. American Zoologist 29: 1067-1074.

Bowler, P. J. (1992). The Norton History of the Environmental Sciences. New York: Norton & Company.

Collias, N. E., andE. C. Collias, eds. (1976). External Construction by Animals. Benchmark Papers in Animal Behavior. Stroudsburg, PA: Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross.

Donovan, S. K., ed. (1994). The Paleobiology of Trace Fossils. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Hansell, M. H. (1984). Animal Architecture and Building Behaviour. London: Longman.

Kohn, A. J. (1989). Natural history and the necessity of the organism. American Zoologist 29: 1095-1103.

Louw, G. N., and W. J. Hamilton. (1972). Physiological and behavioral ecology of the ultrapsammophilus Namib desert tenebrionid, Lepidochora argentogrisea. Madoqua II 54-62: 87-98.

Mayr, E. (1982). The Growth of Biological Thought: Diversity, Evolution, and Inheritance. Cambridge, MA: Belknap/Har-vard University Press.

Reid, R. G. B. (1989). The unwhole organism. American Zoologist 29: 1133-1140.

Ruse, M. (1989). Do organisms exist? American Zoologist 29: 1061-1066.

Seely, M. K., and W. J. Hamilton. (1976). Fog catchment sand trenches constructed by tenebrionid beetles, Lepidochora, from the Namib Desert. Science 193: 484486.

Seely, M. K., C. J. Lewis, et al. (1983). Fog response of tenebrionid beetles in the Namib Desert. Journal of Arid Environments 6: 135-143.

von Frisch, K., and O. von Frisch. (1974). Animal Architecture. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

2. Physiology Beyond the Organism

Crick, R. E., ed. (1989). Origin, Evolution and Modern Aspects of Biomineralization in Plants and Animals. New York: Plenum Press.

Fermi, E. (1936). Thermodynamics. New York: Dover Press.

Hoar, W. S., andD. J. Randall. (1969). Fish Physiology: Excretion, Ionic Regulation and Metabolism. New York, Academic Press.

Keenan, J. H., G. N. Hatsopoulos, et al. (1994). Principles of thermodynamics. Encyclopedia Britannica 28: 619-644. Chicago: The Encyclopœdia Britannica.

Koestler, A. (1967). The Ghost in the Machine. New York: Macmillan Company.

Biomineralization. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Maloiy, G. M. O. (1979). Comparative Physiology of

Osmoregulation in Animals. New York: Academic Press.

Marshall, A. T. (1996). Calcification in hermatypic and ahermatypic corals. Science 271(2 February 1996): 637639.

McConnaughey, T. (1989). Biomineralization mechanisms.

In Origin, Evolution and Modern Aspects of Biomineralization in Plants and Animals, ed. R. E. Crick, 57-73 New York: Plenum.

Pearse, V. B. (1970). Incorporation of metabolic CO2 into coral skeleton. Nature 228: 383.

Pytkowicz, R. M. (1969). Chemical solution of calcium carbonate in sea water. American Zoologist 9: 673-679.

Roberts, L. (1990). Warm waters, bleached corals. Science 250: 213.

Shoemaker, V. H., and K. A. Nagy. (1977). Osmoregulation in amphibians and reptiles. Annual Review of Physiology 39: 449-471.

Shreeve, J. (1996). Are algae—not coral—reef's master builders? Science 271(2 February 1996): 597-598.

Tracy, C. R., and J. S. Turner. (1982). What is physiological ecology? Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 63: 340-341.

Veron, J. E. N. (1995). Corals in Space and Time: The

Biogeography and Evolution of the Scleractina. Ithaca, New York: Comstock/Cornell.

Vogel, K., and W. F. Gutmann. (1989). Organismic autonomy in biomineralization processes. In Origin, Evolution and Modern Aspects of Biomineralization in Plants and Animals, ed. R. E. Crick, 45-56. New York: Plenum.

3. Living Architecture

Bohinski, R. C. (1979). Modern Concepts in Biochemistry. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Calow, P. (1977). Conversion efficiencies in heterotrophic organisms. Biological Reviews 52: 385-409.

Handey, J. (1996). Deep Thoughts. London: Warner Books.

Ohmart, R. D., and R. C. Lasiewski. (1971). Road runners: Energy conservation by hypothermia and absorption of sunlight. Science 172: 67-69.

Phillipson, J. (1966). Ecological Energetics. London: Edward Arnold Ltd.

Pimm, S. L. (1982). Food Webs. London: Chapman and Hall.

Rosenberg, N. J. (1974). Microclimate: The Biological Environment. New York: Wiley and Sons.

Trimmer, J. D. (1950). Response of Physical Systems. New York: Wiley and Sons.

4. Broth and Taxis

Frankel, R. B. (1984). Magnetic guidance of organisms. Annual Review of Biophysics and Bioengineering 13: 85-104.

Hemmersbach-Krause, R., W. Briegleb, W. Haeder, and H. Plattner. (1991). Gravity effects on Paramecium cells: An analysis of a possible sensory function of trichocysts and of simulated weightlessness on trichocyst exocytosis. European Journal of Protistology 27(1): 85-92.

Hennessey, T. M., Y. Sairni, and C. Kung. (1983). A heat induced depolarization of Paramecium and its relationship to thermal avoidance behavior. Journal ofComparative Physiology 153A: 39-46.

Hill, N. A., T. J. Pedley, and J. O. Kessler. (1989). Growth of bioconvection patterns in a suspension of gyrotactic micro-organisms in a layer of finite depth. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 208: 509-543.

Hillesdon, A. J., and T. J. Pedley. (1996). Bioconvection in suspensions of oxytactic bacteria: Linear theory. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 324: 223-259.

Kessler, J. O. (1985a). Co-operative and concentrative phenomena of swimming micro-organisms. Contemporary Physics 26(2): 147-166.

-(1985b). Hydrodynamic focusing of motile algal cells.

Nature 313(17 January 1985): 218-220.

Kils, U. (1993). Formation of micropatches by zooplankton-driven microturbulences. Bulletin of Marine Science 53(1): 160-169.

Kudo, R. R. (1966). Protozoology. 5th ed. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.

Lewin, R. A. (1995). Bioconvection. Archiv für Hydrobiologie, Supplement 198(77): 67-73.

Mendelson, N. H., and J. Lega. (1998). A complex pattern of traveling stripes is produced by swimming cells of Bacillus subtilis. Journal of Bacteriology 180(13): 3285-3294.

Parkinson, J. S., and D. F. Blair. (1993). Does E. coli have a nose? Science 259: 1701-1702.

Pedley, T. J., N. A. Hill, and J. O. Kessler. (1988). The growth of bioconvection patterns in a uniform suspension of gyrotactic micro-organisms. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 195: 223-237.

Pedley, T. J., and J. O. Kessler. (1990). A new continuum model for suspensions of gyrotactic micro-organisms. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 212: 155-182.

Peterson, I. (1996). Shaken bead beds show pimples and dimples. Science News 150(31 August 1996): 135.

Vincent, R. V., and N. A. Hill. (1996). Bioconvection in a suspension of phototactic algae. Journal ofFluid Mechanics 327: 343-371.

Vogel, S. (1981). Life in Moving Fluids. Boston, MA: Willard Grant Press.

-(1993). Life in a whirl. Discover 14(August 1993): 8086.

Barthel, D. (1991). Influence of different current regimes on the growth form of Halichondria panicea Pallas. In Fossil and Recent Sponges, ed. J. Reitner and H. Keupp, 387394. Berlin: Springer Verlag.

Bibby, C. (1978). The Art of the Limerick.. Hamden, CT: Archon Books.

Bradbury, R. H., and R. E. Reichelt. (1983). Fractal dimen sion of a coral reef at ecological scales. Marine Ecology— Progress Series 10(3 January 1983): 169-171.

Bradbury, R. H., andD. C. Young. (1981). The effects of a major forcing function, wave energy, on a coral reef ecosystem. Marine Ecology—Progress Series 5: 229-241.

Bulloch, D. K. (1992). Close comfort. Underwater Naturalist 20(4): 13-16.

Dauget, J. M. (1991). Application of tree architectural models to reef-coral growth. Marine Biology 111: 157165.

Davidson, E. H., K. J. Peterson, and R. A. Cameron. (1995). Origin of bilaterian body plans: Evolution of developmental regulatory mechanisms. Science 270(24 November 1995): 1319-1325.

Erwin, D., J. Valentine, and D. Jablonski. (1997). The origin of animal body plans. American Scientist 85(March-April 1997): 126-137.

Fry, W. G. (1979). Taxonomy, the individual and the sponge. In Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms, ed. G. Larwood and B. R. Rosen, 11: 49-80. London: Academic Press.

Gleick, J. (1987). Chaos:Making a New Science. New York: Penguin.

Harris, S. (1977). What's So Funny about Science? Los Altos, CA: William Kaufmann.

Hickman, C. P., andF. M. Hickman. (1992). Laboratory

Studies in Integrated Zoology. 8th ed. Dubuque, IA: Wm. C. Brown Publishers.

Jackson, J. B. G. (1979). Morphological strategies of sessile animals. In Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms, ed. G. Larwood and B. R. Rosen, 11: 499-555. London: Academic Press.

Kaandorp, J. (1994). Fractal Modelling: Growth and Formin Biology. Berlin: Springer Verlag.

Kaandorp, J. A. (1991). Modelling growth forms of the sponge Haliclona oculata (Porifera, Demospongiae) using fractal techniques. Marine Biology 110: 203-215.

Kaandorp, J. A., and M. J. de Kluijver (1992). Verification of fractal growth models of the sponge Haliclona oculata (Porifera) with transplantation experiments. Marine Biology 113: 133-145.

Kerr, R. A. (1997). Life's winners keep their poise in tough times. Science 278: 1403.

Koehl, M. A. R. (1982). The interaction of moving water and sessile organisms. Scientific American 247(December 1982): 124-134.

Larwood, G., and B. R. Rosen. (1979). Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms. London: Academic Press.

McMenamin, M. A. S., and D. L. Schulte-McMenamin. (1990). The Emergence of Animals: The Cambrian Breakthrough. New York: Columbia University Press.

Meynell, F., and V. Meynell. (1938). The Weekend Book. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Morell, V. (1997). Microbiology's scarred revolutionary. Science 276(2 May 1997): 699-702.

Palumbi, S. R. (1987). How body plans limit acclimation: Responses of a demisponge to wave force. Ecology 67: 208214.

Pennisi, E., and W. Roush (1997). Developing a new view of evolution. Science 277(4 July 1997): 34-37.

Rodrigo, A. G., P. R. Bergquist, P. L. Bergquist, and R. A. Reeves (1994). Are sponges animals? An investigation into the vagaries of phylogenetic inference. In Sponges in Time and Space: Biology, Chemistry, Paleontology, ed. R. W. M. van Soest, T. M. G. van Kempen, and J. C. Braekman, 47-54. Rotterdam, A. A. Balkema.

Rosen, B. R. (1986). Modular growth and form of corals: A matter of metamers? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences 313: 115-142.

Storer, T. I., R. L. Usinger, R. C. Stebbins, and J. W.

Nybakken. (1979). General Zoology. 6th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Veron, J. E. N. (1995). Corals in Space and Time: The

Biogeography and Evolution of the Scleractina. Ithaca, New York: Comstock/Cornell.

Vogel, S. (1974). Current-induced flow through the sponge, Halichondria. Biological Bulletin 147: 443-456.

--(1978). Evidence for one-way valves in the water-

flow system of sponges. Journal of Experimental Biology 76: 137-148.

--(1981). Life in Moving Fluids. Boston, MA: Willard

Grant Press.

Warburton, F. E. (1960). Influence of currents on the forms of sponges. Science 132: 89.

Williams, N. (1997). Fractal geometry gets the measure of life's scales. Science 276(4 April 1997): 34.

6. Mud Power

Aller, R. C. (1983). The importance of the diffusive permeability of animal burrow linings in determining marine sediment chemistry. Journal of Marine Research 41: 299322.

Aller, R. C., and J. Y. Yingst. (1978). Biogeochemistry of tube dwellings: A study of the sedentary polychaete Amphitrite ornata (Leidy). Journal of Marine Research 36(2): 201-254.

Andersen, F. O., andE. Kristensen. (1991). Effects of burrowing macrofauna on organic matter decomposition in coastal marine sediments. In The Environmental Impact of Burrowing Animals and Animal Burrows, ed. P. S. Meadows and A. Meadows, 63: 69-88. Oxford: Clarendon.

Balavoine, G., and A. Adoutte. (1998). One or three Cambrian radiations? Science 280(17 April 1998): 397-398.

Bohinski, R. C. (1979). Modern Concepts in Biochemistry. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Briggs, D. E. G. (1994). Giant predators from the Cambrian of China. Science 264(27 May 1994): 1283-1284.

Bromley, R. G. (1990). Trace Fossils: Biology and Taphonomy. London: Unwin Hyman Ltd.

Chapman, G. (1949). The thixotropy and dilatancy of a marine soil. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 28: 123-140.

Chapman, G. and G. E. Newell. (1947). The role of the body fluid in relation to movement in soft-bodied invertebrates I. The burrowing of Arenicola. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences 134: 432-455.

Clark, R. B., and J. B. Cowey. (1958). Factors controlling the change of shape of certain nemertean and turbellarian worms. Journal of Experimental Biology 35: 731-748.

Conway Morris, S. (1989). Burgess Shale faunas and the Cambrian explosion. Science 246: 339-346.

Conway Morris, S., and H. B. Whittington. (1979). The animals of the Burgess Shale. Scientific American 241(July 1979): 122-133.

Crimes, T. P. (1994). The period of early evolutionary failure and the dawn of evolutionary success: The record of bi-otic changes across the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary. In The Paleobiology of Trace Fossils, ed. S. K. Donovan. 105-133. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Donovan, S. K., ed. (1994). The Paleobiology of Trace Fossils. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Elder, H. Y. (1980). Peristaltic mechanisms. In Aspects of Animal Movement, ed. H. Y. Elder and E. R. Trueman. Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press. 5: 71-92.

Elder, H. Y., andE. R. Trueman, eds. (1980). Aspects of Animal Movement. Society for Experimental Biology Seminar Series. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ferry, J. G. (1997). Methane: Small molecule, big impact. Science 278: 1413-1414.

Gust, G., and J. T. Harrison. (1981). Biological pumps at the sediment-water interface: Mechanistic evaluation of the alpheid shrimp Alpheus mackayi and its irrigation pattern. Marine Biology 64: 71-78.

Haq, B. U., and F. W.B. van Eysinga. (1998). Geological Time Scale. 5th ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science B.V.

Heffernan, J. M., and S. A. Wainwright. (1974). Locomotion of the holothurian Euapta lappa and redefinition of peristalsis. Biological Bulletin 147: 95-104.

Hickman, C. P., L. S. Roberts, and A. Larson. (1993). Integrated Principles of Zoology. 9th ed. Dubuque, IA: Wm. C. Brown.

Hylleberg, J. (1975). Selective feeding by Abarenicolapacifica with notes on Abarenicola vagabunda and a concept of gardening in lugworms. Ophelia 14: 113-137.

Kerr, R. A. (1998). Tracks of billion-year-old animals? Science 282(2 October 1998): 19-21.

McMenamin, M. A. S., and D. L. Schulte-McMenamin. (1990). The Emergence of Animals: The Cambrian Breakthrough. New York: Columbia University Press.

Meadows, P. S., and A. Meadows, eds. (1991a). The Environmental Impact of Burrowing Animals and Animal Burrows. Symposia of the Zoological Society of London. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

-(1991b). The geotechnical and geochemical implications of bioturbation in marine sedimentary ecosystems. In The Environmental Impact of Burrowing Animals and Animal Burrows, ed. P. S. Meadows and A. Meadows, 63: 157-181. Oxford: Clarendon.

Rhoads, D. C., and D. K. Young. (1971). Animal-sediment relations in Cape Cod Bay, Massachusetts. II. Reworking by Molpadia oolitica (Holothuroidea)." Marine Biology 11: 255-261.

Savazzi, E. (1994). Functional morphology of boring and burrowing invertebrates. In The Paleobiology of Trace Fossils, ed. S. K. Donovan, 43-82. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Schopf, J. W. (1975). Precambrian paleobiology: Problems and perspectives. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 3: 213-249.

Seilacher, A., P. K. Bose, and F. Pfluger. (1998). Triploblastic animals more than 1 billion years ago: Trace fossil evidence from India. Science 282(2 October 1998): 80-83.

Seymour, M. K. (1970). Skeletons of Lumbricus terrestris L. and Arenicola marina (L.). Nature 228(24 October 1970).

--(1971). Burrowing behaviour in the European lug-

worm Arenicola marina (Polychaeta: Arenicolidae). Journal of Zoology (London) 164: 93-132.

--(1973). Motion and the skeleton in small nematodes.

Nematologica 19: 43-48.

Vidal, G. (1984). The oldest eukaryotic cells. Scientific American 250: 48-57.

Wells, G. P. (1948). Thixotropy, and the mechanics of burrowing in the lugworm (Arenicola marina L.). Nature 162: 652-653.

White, D. (1995). The Physiology and Biochemistry of

Prokaryotes. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.

Wyatt, T. (1993). Submarine beetles. Natural History 102(7): 6, 8-9.

Ziebis, W., S. Forster, M. Huettel, and B. B. Jorgensen.

(1996). Complex burrows of the mud shrimp Callianassa truncata and their geochemical impact in the sea bed. Nature 382(15 August 1996): 619-622.

7. As the Worm Turns

Alexander, R. M. (1983). Animal Mechanics. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific.

Boroffka, I. (1965). Elektrolyttransport im nephridium von

Lumbricus terrestris. Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Physiologie 51: 25-48.

Campbell, G. S. (1977). An Introduction to Environmental Biophysics. New York: Springer Verlag.

Childs, E. C., andN. C. George. (1948). Soil geometry and soil-water equilibria. Discussions of the Faraday Society 3: 78-85.

Edwards, W. M., M. J. Shipitalo, S. J. Traina, C. A. Edwards, and L. B. Owens. (1992). Role of Lumbricus terrestris (L.) burrows on quality of infiltrating water. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 24: 1555-1561.

Ghilarov, M. S. (1983). Darwin's Formation of Vegetable Mould. Its philosophical basis. In Earthworm Ecology from Darwin to Vermiculite, ed. J. E. Satchell, 1-4. London: Chapman and Hall.

Goodrich, E. S. (1945). The study of nephridia and genital ducts since 1895. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science 86: 113-392.

Graff, O. (1983). Darwin on earthworms—the contemporary background and what the critics thought. In Earthworm Ecology from Darwin to Vermiculite, ed. J. E. Satchell, 5-18. London: Chapman and Hall.

Hoogerkamp, M., H. Rogaar, and H. J. P. Eijsackers. (1983). Effect of earthworms on grassland on recently reclaimed polder soils in the Netherlands. In Earthworm Ecology: From Darwin to Vermiculite, J. E. Satchell, 85-105. London: Chapman and Hall.

Joschko, M., W. Sochtig, and O. Larink. (1992). Functional relationship between earthworm burrows and soil water movement in column experiments. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 24: 1545-1547.

Kretzschmar, A. (1983). Soil transport as a homeostatic mechanism for stabilizing the earthworm environment. In Earthworm Ecology: From Darwin to Vermiculite, ed. J. E. Satchell, 59-83. London: Chapman and Hall.

Kretzschmar, A., and F. Aries. (1992). An analysis of the structure of the burrow system of the giant Gippsland earthwormMegascolides australis McCoy 1878 using 3-D images. Exeter 24: 1583-1586.

Kretzschmar, A., and P. Monestiez. (1992). Physical control of soil biological activity due to endogeic earthworm behaviour. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 24: 1609-1614.

Lee, K. E. (1983). Earthworms of tropical regions—some aspects of their ecology and relationships with soils. In Earthworm Ecology: From Darwin to Vermiculite, ed. J. E. Satchell, 179-194. London: Chapman and Hall.

--(1985). Earthworms: Their Ecology and Relationships with Soils and Land Use. Sydney: Academic Press.

--(1991). The diversity of soil organisms. In Biodiversity ofMicroorganisms and Invertebrates: Its Role in Sustainable Agriculture, ed. D. L. Hawksworth, 73-87. Wallingford: CAB International.

McKenzie, B. M., and A. R. Dexter. (1988a). Axial pressures generated by the earthworm, Aporrectodea rosea. Biology and Fertility of Soils 5: 323-327.

--(1988b). Radial pressures generated by the earthworm, Aporrectodea rosea. Biology and Fertility of Soils 5: 328-332.

Meadows, P. S., and A. Meadows, eds. (1991). The Environmental Impact of Burrowing Animals and Animal Burrows. Symposia of the Zoological Society of London. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Monteith, J. L., and M. H. Unsworth. (1990). Principles ofEn-vironmental Biophysics. London: Edward Arnold.

Oglesby, L. C. (1978). Salt and water balance. In Physiology of

Annelids, ed. P. Mill, 555-658. New York: Academic Press.

Satchell, J. E., ed. (1983). Earthworm Ecology: From Darwin to Vermiculite. London: Chapman and Hall.

Seymour, M. K. (1970). Skeletons of Lumbricus terrestris L. and Arenicola marina (L.). Nature 228(24 October 1970): 383-385.

-(1971). Coelomic pressure and electromyogramin earthworm locomotion. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 40A: 859-864.

-(1976). Pressure difference in adjacent segments and movement of septa in earthworm locomotion. Journal of Experimental Biology 64: 743-750.

Stehouwer, R. C., W. A. Dick, and S. J. Traina. (1992). Characteristics of earthworm burrow lining affecting atrazine sorption. Journal of Environmental Quality 22: 181-185.

-(1994). Sorption and retention of herbicides in vertically oriented earthworm and artificial burrows. Journal of Environmental Quality 23: 286-292.

Trojan, M. D., and D. R. Linden. (1992). Microrelief and rainfall effects on water and solute movement in earthworm burrows. Journal of the Soil Science Society of America 56: 727-733.

Withers, P. C. (1992). Comparative Animal Physiology. Fort Worth, TX: Saunders College Publishing.

8. Arachne's Aqualungs

Alexander, R. M. (1983). Animal Mechanics. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific.

Bristowe, W. S. (1930). Notes on the biology of spiders. II. Aquatic spiders. The Annals and Magazine of Natural History; Zoology, Botany and Geology 10(6): 343-347.

-(1931a). A British semi-marine spider. The Annals and

Magazine of Natural History; Zoology, Botany and Geology 9(12): 154-156.

-(1931b). Notes on the biology of spiders. IV. Further notes on aquatic spiders, with a description of a new series of pseudoscorpion from Singapore. The Annals and Magazine of Natural History; Zoology, Botany and Geology 10(8): 457-464.

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Dawkins, R. (1982). The Extended Phenotype. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman.

Edwards, G. A. (1953). Respiratory mechanisms. In Insect Physiology, ed. K. D. Roeder, 55-95. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Ege, R. (1915). On the respiratory function of the air stores carried by some aquatic insects (Corixidae, Dytiscidae andNotonecta). ZeitschriftfürallgemeinePhysiologie 17: 81124.

Fabre, J. H. (1913). The Life of the Spider. New York: Dodd, Mead and Company.

Fish, D. (1977). An aquatic spittlebug (Homoptera:

Cercopidae) from a Heliconia flower bract in southern Costa Rica. Entomological News 88: 10-12.

Fisher, K. (1932). Agriotypus ornatus (Walk) (Hymenoptera) and its relations with its hosts. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pp. 451-461.

Foelix, R. F. (1996). Biology of Spiders. New York: Oxford University Press.

Foster, W. A. (1989). Zonation, behaviour and morphology of the intertidal coral-treader Hermatobates (Hemiptera: Hermatobatidae) in the south-west Pacific. Zoological Journal of the Linnaean Society 96(1): 87-105.

Guilbeau, B. (1908). The origin and formation of the froth in spittle insects. American Naturalist 42: 783-789.

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Hinton, H. E. (1960). Plastron respiration in the eggs of blowflies. Journal of Insect Physiology 4: 176-183.

-(1963). The respiratory system of the egg-shell of the blowfly, Calliphora erythrocephala Meig., as seen with the electron microscope. Journal of Insect Physiology 9: 121129.

-(1968). Spiracular gills. Advances in Insect Physiology 5:

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