Reallife Global Balance

An exact equilibration of the nucleon sums within the well-defined sets is one of the two standard representations of the artifactural differences of the genetic code. The unique global balance in Fig. 5 makes use of molecular residues of the amino acid standard blocks from an internal part of a protein and charged ions of side chains from the real-life environment of cytoplasm. The closed circle of the block

Fig. 5 The real-life global balance of the genetic code. The nucleon sum of the standard block residues and the nucleon sum of the ionized and protonated side chains draw up the balance. The amount of summands is determined by degeneracy. Pythagoras' image symbolizes the balanced summations. There is the well-known radial representation of the genetic code 64 triplets. The standard direction of reading 5' ^ 3' coincides with the direction outwards from the center. An example of reading is shown for two triplets coded for aspartic amino acid (Asp).

There are four amino acids whose side chains acquire charges in the real-life environment of cytoplasm. Aspartic acid and glutamic acid (Glu) are fully ionized, i.e. lose one proton each. Arginine (Arg) and lysine (Lys) are fully protonated, i.e. join one proton each. Both types of changes are denoted with arrows. To illustrate the use of graphical symbols there are the ionized aspartic acid and the particular proline (Pro) molecule at the bottom. The block residues from an internal part of a protein form a ring-shaped polymer using peptide bonds.

The real-life global balance is valid for the universal genetic code version. This balance has been found by the author and associates (Kashkarov et al., 2002) simultaneously with Downes and Richardson (2002)

Fig. 5 The real-life global balance of the genetic code. The nucleon sum of the standard block residues and the nucleon sum of the ionized and protonated side chains draw up the balance. The amount of summands is determined by degeneracy. Pythagoras' image symbolizes the balanced summations. There is the well-known radial representation of the genetic code 64 triplets. The standard direction of reading 5' ^ 3' coincides with the direction outwards from the center. An example of reading is shown for two triplets coded for aspartic amino acid (Asp).

There are four amino acids whose side chains acquire charges in the real-life environment of cytoplasm. Aspartic acid and glutamic acid (Glu) are fully ionized, i.e. lose one proton each. Arginine (Arg) and lysine (Lys) are fully protonated, i.e. join one proton each. Both types of changes are denoted with arrows. To illustrate the use of graphical symbols there are the ionized aspartic acid and the particular proline (Pro) molecule at the bottom. The block residues from an internal part of a protein form a ring-shaped polymer using peptide bonds.

The real-life global balance is valid for the universal genetic code version. This balance has been found by the author and associates (Kashkarov et al., 2002) simultaneously with Downes and Richardson (2002)

residues and their virtually cross-cut side chains draw up the balance. Such kind of equilibration is referred hereinafter to as the block-to-chain type.

Seems, this was the only way for the global balance to appear in the distant past. That was the same way we have revealed it now, i.e. by the 128 successive arithmetical summations. Assuredly, the nucleon number of an amino acid is an equivalent of its molecular mass. But it is hard to believe some natural events could balance the genetic code in another way than by the arithmetical summation. The detached amino acids never gather to be "weighed" at once. It is necessary to be "aware" of the actual degeneracy to repeat accordingly certain amino acid masses when weighing, e.g. the 57-nucleon isoleucine (Ile) side chain should be thrice repeated. Another result of those events should be in accurate cuts of bonds between amino acids blocks and chains with weighing of the ends that are easy to do in imagination, but not in reality. Intermediate weighing results should again be stored somehow in analog form. So when considering the origin of the nucleon equilibration in the genetic code, arithmetical summation is more realizable than physical weighing. Incidentally, it is shown in the sections below that the imaginary borrowing and some privileged numerical system would end the issue of the physical equilibration inside the code.

The closed ring of the block residues in Fig. 5 gives equal status to each of the 61 amino acids. The natural -NH2 and -COOH molecular groups on the opposite ends of the disclosed ring destroy the global balance. It is of common knowledge that there are circularly closed DNA molecules, but no circular proteins in a living cell. Because of such virtual closing the global balance can be placed among other virtual balances discovered throughout the genetic code in abundance. Nevertheless, the real-life chemical conditions are integrally embodied into the genetic code due to this global equilibration.

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