Edward N. Trifonov
Abstract Contrary to common belief that the nucleotide sequences only encode proteins, there are numerous additional codes, each of a different nature. The codes, at DNA, RNA, and protein sequence levels, are superposed, i.e. the same nucleotide in a given sequence may be simultaneously involved in several different encoded functions, at different levels. Such coexistence is possible due to degeneracy of the messages present in the sequence. Protein sequences are degenerate as well: involved not only in the functions related to the protein, but also adjusting to sequence requirements at the DNA level.
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