Contents

Foreword xiii

Preface xv

Acknowledgments xxi

1 Nature's Magnetism 1

1.1 Finding the Fields 1

1.2 Historical Tour Markers 2

1.2.1 Compass Origin 2

1.2.2 Global Explorations 3

1.2.3 Geomagnetism Patriarchs 5

Gilbert 5

Halley 7

Faraday 5

Gauss 7

Maxwell 7

Chapman 11

1.3 Local Language Dictionary 7

1.3.1 Earth Fields, Steady and Changing 11

1.3.2 Forces at Work 13

1.3.3 Measuring Scales 15

1.3.4 Locating the Fields 17

1.3.5 Nature's Basic Particles 18

Atoms 18

Molecules 19

Ions and Current 20

1.4 Our Tour of the Fields 22

2 Vistas of Lives in the Fields 25

2.1 Fields Making a Difference 25

2.1.1 Travel and Exploration 25

2.1.2 Magnetic Rocks 30

2.1.3 Prehistoric Fields and Continental Drift 35

2.1.4 Field Mapping and Geologic Exploration 37

2.1.5 Sudden Field Changes in the Crust 40

2.1.6 Biomagnetism 41

2.1.7 Medicine 42

2.1.8 Magnetic LĂ©vitation (Maglev) 44

2.1.9 Magnetic Fields and Technology 44

Destruction in Space 44

Interference with Communication and Navigation 47

2.1.10 Field Induction Responses 50

Earth Conductivity 50

Electric Power Systems 50

Long-Wire Communications 51

Pipeline Corrosion 52

2.2 Tour to the Boundaries 53

2.2.1 Establishing Significance 53

Statistical Sampling 54

Correlation 54

Cause and Effect 54

Double Blind 55

Modeling 55

2.2.2 Magnetic Correlations 55

Weather and Climate 55

Human Responses to Magnetic Fields 58

2.2.3 Pseudoscience, Old Wives' Tales, and Frauds 60

Magnetic Termites 60

Body Magnets 61

Water Improvement 63

Water Witching or Divining 63

Focusing of Lightning 64

Bermuda Triangle and Oceanic Fields 65

Earthquake Predictions 66

3 Sailing the Magnetic Seas in Calm Winds 69

3.1 Inside Sources 70

3.2 Pole Markers 72

3.2.1 Magnetic Poles Galore 72

3.2.2 IGRF Main Field Poles 74

3.2.3 Geomagnetic Coordinate Poles 78

3.2.4 Two Eccentric Axis Poles 80

3.2.5 Locally Measured Dip Poles 82

3.2.6 Satellite Evidence of Poles 84

3.3 A Space of Quiet Fields 86

3.4 Conducting Blanket 88

3.5 Quietly Flowing Currents 90

3.5.2 Solar-Quiet, Sq 92

3.5.3 Induction 93

3.5.4 Sectors 94

4 Umbrella for Magnetic Storms 97

4.1 Disturbances in Sight 97

4.1.2 In the Wind 101

4.1.3 Storms Overhead 102

Earth Field Encounter 102

Glamorous Display 103

4.1.4 Agitation in the Fields 106

Storm Fingerprints 106

Storm Explanations 108

Heating Ill

4.1.5 Measures of Activity 115

AE Index 115

Dst Index 115

Kp Index 115

Ap Index 117

4.1.6 Pulsations 119

5 Harvesting the Fields 121

5.1 Field Traces 121

5.1.1 Early Record Keeping 121

5.1.2 Modern Field Recording 122

5.1.3 Do-It-Yourself Systems 125

Soda-Bottle Magnetometer 125

Earth-Current Pulsation Sensor 127

5.2 Scientists at Work 128

5.2.1 Dipole Field Patterns 128

5.2.2 Fluid Velocity at Core-Mantle Boundary 128

5.2.3 Magnetotellurics 128

5.2.4 Polar Sector Currents 130

5.2.5 Dst Storm Index 130

5.2.6 Pulsations 131

5.3 Track and Field Records 132

5.4 Space Weather Disturbance Scales 134

5.5 Information Kiosk 134

5.6 Directions for Further Travel 139

Index 143

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