My list of the patriarchs also includes three mathematical geniuses who brought about a modern understanding of the magnetic processes. In 1838, Carl Friedreich Gauss (Figure 1.8) of Goettingen, Germany, published a mathematical method to analyze the natural field observations and determine how much of the magnetic field measured at the Earth's surface comes from sources within the Earth. Gauss was also responsible for greatly improving the sensitivity of observatory instrumentation. In addition, he established a major cooperative international network of observers to confirm the global extent of natural field disturbances.

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