The two kinds of variation are phenotypic (changes in outward physical traits) and genotypic (changes in the organism's underlying genetic makeup basically, the DNA sequence of its genes). Individuals with the same phenotype can have different genotypes, and individuals with the same genotype can have different phenotypes. Height, for example, has both a genetic component and an environmental component. You'd think that two people with identical genetic makeup (such as identical twins) would be the same height, but if only one received a healthy diet, the result could be two adults of different heights. In this example, two people with the same genotype have different phenotypes. Conversely, two people with different genetic make-ups can be the same height. In this case, the two individuals have different genotypes but the same phenotypes. Imagine that being taller carries a selective advantage that is, taller folks are better at surviving and reproducing. In the case of the identical...
An organism's phenotype (physical characteristics) is a result of the interaction between its genotype (genetic makeup) and the environment. A person with the genetic potential to be 7 feet tall won't achieve that height in the absence of proper diet, for example. A malnourished person will be stunted compared with a genetically identical individual who was well fed. The impact of the environment on the developing organism is called environmental effects, and one way that the environment can affect phenotype is by affecting development. (You can read more about what affects phenotype in Chapters 4 and 7.)
A variety of mechanisms can cause the genetic makeup of the next generation to differ from the genetic makeup of the current generation. Natural selection (Chapter 5) and random factors (Chapter 6) are two immediate examples. These mechanisms change the genetic makeup of a population from one generation to the next natural selection, because some genetic types have better reproductive success than others, and genetic drift, just because sometimes stuff happens a fire kills many blue-eyed deer, leaving fewer blue-eyed deer to make more blue-eyed deer.
The Deep Impact mission will provide the highest resolution images yet of a comet nucleus. Our knowledge of the makeup and structure of cometary nuclei, and the processes shaping their surfaces, is extremely limited, thus use of the Deep Impact data to show the geological context of the cratering experiment is crucial. This article briefly discusses some of the geological issues of cometary nuclei.
The immediate, or direct, cause of all mass extinctions appears to be changes in the global atmosphere inventory. Changes to the atmospheric gases (which may be changes in volume or in the relative constituents of the atmosphere) can be caused by many things asteroid or comet impact, degassing of carbon dioxide or other gases into the oceans and atmosphere during flood basalt extrusion (when great volumes of lava flow out onto Earth's surface), degassing caused by liberation of organic-rich ocean sediments during changes in sea level, and changes in the patterns of ocean circulation. The killing agents arise through changes in the makeup and behavior of the at
There is a voluminous literature on cephalopod hard parts, especially the mandibles, which we will not attempt to completely survey here. As a brief overview, Biguet described the first fossil mandible as a rhyncholite in 1819. From that time till the 1960s it was common for paleontologists to describe these parts of cephalopods as new genera and species (see, e.g., Trauth, 1927, 1935a, b) and in the Treatise of Invertebrate Paleontology, Volume K, Teichert et al. (1964) discussed these body parts extensively and provided a comprehensive compilation of the then known genera. More recent reports by Closs and Gordon (1966), Lehman (1987, 1990), Mapes (1987), Dagys et al. (1989), Doguzhaeva et al. (1997) and many others have not followed this naming trend and have generally used simpler terminology with the goal of investigating the modes of preservation, function - especially the operculum versus mandible problem (see Dagys and Dagys, 1975 Morton, 1981 Lehmann, 1970, 1972 a, b, 1987,...
The reason is that the genetic markers used to identify race are not part of the genes or their control regions, so far as is known, and therefore play no part in the physical appearance or behavior of an individual. Presumably they are indirectly correlated with genes that do control the body's physical makeup, but the connection is indirect and at present unknown.
To a single camera between the telescopes, be used as an interferometer with a maximum baseline of 22.8 m, giving LBT extremely high angular resolution. It is intended to use the LBT Interferometer (LBTI) to search for extrasolar planets through the use of nulling interferometry, described in Section 8.7.3, to cancel out the light from stars in stellar systems to leave just the light reflected, or emitted, from nearby planets, and thus allow their direct imaging. In addition to looking for extrasolar planets, LBTI will be able to directly image faint zodiacal dust disks (indicative of planetesimals) around other stars. A survey of a large sample of stars close to our Sun will reveal how common the makeup of our own solar system is and identify which stars have planetary systems potentially suitable for life-bearing, terrestrial planets.
As in any competition there are always winners, and slowly and surely a few larger, dominating structures begin to form. These are the hundred to thousand kilometer-sized planetary embryos. The main chemical makeup of the planetesimals is determined according to where they formed in the planetary disk. Close in toward the proto-star the temperature in the disk is very high, so only high-melting-point silicates and nickel-iron alloys can survive. Further out in the disk, where the temperature drops below 273 K, water ice can form, and still further out carbon monoxide (CO) ice can exist, and so on. This temperature (and hence location in disk)-dependent chemistry dictates that the innermost planets will form from material that is predominantly rich in silicates and iron, while further out water ice is a dominant ingredient. This split in the basic chemical makeup of the planetesimals is revealed in our Solar System in the internal structure and composition of the terrestrial and Jovian...
Although the human elements were nearing studio production in England, this fairly important plot line - the ending - had not yet been worked out by the two authors. The spacecraft's crew, or some fraction of it, was to make contact with extraterrestrials. Yes, but how to portray the extraterrestrials Kubrick favored extraterrestrials not profoundly different from human beings. Kubrick's preference had one distinct advantage, an economic one He could call up Central Casting and ask for twenty extraterrestrials. With a little makeup, he would have his problem solved. The alternative portrayal of extraterrestrials, whatever it was, was bound to be expensive.
Another major study in this area was the Droplet Combustion Apparatus (DCA), which occupied Voss during one of her early shifts on 5 April and housed a variety of experiments to investigate burning drops of different fuels and monitor conditions at the instant of their extinction. A significant amount of the energy produced around the world comes from burning fuels, Vedha Nayagam of Lewis Research Center said, and by studying them in space and comparing their data to theoretical models it was hoped to learn more about their chemical makeup.
Another very important, although controversial, contribution of the molecular biology revolution to human disease is the looming gene replacement technology, or gene therapy. The idea of gene replacement therapy is to repair a defective disease-causing gene in an afflicted patient. For example, it is currently possible to take human blood cells from a patient suffering from p-thalassemia, a condition in which the oxygen-binding molecule hemoglobin is abnormal, fix the genetic defect in isolated blood cells in a test tube, and reintroduce these genetically repaired cells into the patient after that person has been irradiated to eliminate his or her own defective blood cells. The result of such a gene replacement treatment is that the future blood cells produced by the person will make a normal functional version of hemoglobin, and their disease will be cured for life. Treatments such as this are now at the experimental stage in clinical trials and undoubtedly will be improved over the...
Atoms, regardless of their isotope, combine to make molecules and compounds. For example, carbon (C) and hydrogen (H) molecules combine to make methane, a common gas constituent of the outer planets. Methane consists of one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms and is shown symbolically as CH4. Whenever a subscript is placed by the symbol of an element, it indicates how many of those atoms go into the makeup of that molecule or compound.
A major goal of current genetic research in the medical arena is to understand how medical care can be tailored to the patient based on their individual genetic makeup. The development of 'personalized medicine' promises significant potential benefits but remains some way from being fully realized. This may be most readily achieved in terms of specific therapeutics, aiming to maximize the benefit for the patient while minimizing the risk of adverse effects. Other applications relate to targeted use of screening and monitoring, for example if an individual is at high risk of colonic or breast cancer, or of hypercholesterolemia, as a result of possession of a particular underlying genetic variant. There are also less direct but potentially equally important applications of current research in terms of our knowledge of underlying disease pathogenesis and potential novel targets for therapeutic interventions. Recent genome-wide association studies in Crohn's disease for example have...
Atoms, regardless of their isotope, combine together to make molecules and compounds. For example, carbon (C) and hydrogen (H) molecules combine to make methane, a common gas constituent of the outer planets. Methane consists of one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms and is shown symbolically as CH Whenever a subscript is placed by the symbol of an element, it indicates how many of those atoms go into the makeup of that molecule or compound.
A second DPM experiment was provided by Robert Apfel of Yale University and examined the influence of 'surfactants' - substances which alter a fluid's properties by aiding or inhibiting the way it adheres to, or mixes with, other substances - on the behaviour of drops. On Earth, surfactants are routinely used soap and water interact in dishwashers, for example, and cosmetics manufacturing, the cleaning-up of oil spills and the dissolution of proteins in synthetic drugs also rely heavily upon them. Apfel's study focused on the oscillation of single drops and the coalescence of several drops with different concentrations of surfactants.
From early cytogenetic studies revealing major chromosomal abnormalities to more recent analysis of smaller scale structural and fine scale sequence level variation, remarkable diversity in our individual genetic makeup has been demonstrated. The establishment of clear terminology for use in reporting such variation is essential to the continued advancement ofthe field, and has been highlighted by many investigators. The classification based on size advocated by Scherer and Lee (Fig. 1.29) provides a very useful framework for considering genetic variation (Scherer et al. 2007). There is a need for consistency in the specific nomenclature used to describe individual variants following, for example, the recommendations of the Human Genome Variation Society (Box 1.13). The growth in online databases cataloguing human genetic variation such as dbSNP (www.ncbi. nlm.nih.gov projects SNP ) for fine scale sequence variation also provides greater opportunities for standardization in reporting...
There are many possible viewpoints on the present and near-future costs of space science and astronomy. Because the annual costs of ground-based astronomy are only a few percent of the costs of the scientific space program, I will concentrate on the price of the latter. It is customary to compare expenditures on space to annual expenditures in the United States for ethyl alcohol or bubble gum or cosmetics. I personally find it more useful to compare the costs with those of the U. S. Department of Defense. Using a report of the government's General Accounting Office (the New York Times, July 19, 1970), we learn that the total anticipated cost of the Viking mission to land on Mars in 1976 is about half that of the cost overruns in the so-called Safeguard antiballistic missile system for fiscal year 1970. The cost of a Grand Tour exploration of all the planets in the outer Solar System (canceled for lack of funds) is comparable to the 1970 cost overruns on the Minuteman III system the...
If the astrochemistry of HMCs is the precursor to the chemistry of the primordial solar nebula, it is therefore relevant to the patterns of chemical fractionation observed in the primitive meteorites and to the volatile abundances in the planets. When dense interstellar clouds collapse to form stellar systems, comet nuclei, asteroids, and meteoroids are also formed contemporaneously. Such formation processes can be categorized by their characteristic temperatures the extremely hot processes of stellar and planetary formation would tend to destroy interstellar cloud molecules. Molecules are less likely to be destroyed in cooler processes such as comet formation such objects have been classified as conglomerations of dirty ices. Even so, the cold interstellar cloud material is heated in these cooler formation routes, and the basic raw material can thereby be changed. For example, while no amino acid monomers have been found in meteorites, amino acid derivatives abound in these objects...
Let's return briefly to the real world. It is now practical, on a very limited scale, to check the genetic makeup of a fetus by methods such as amniocentesis and decide whether to continue or end the pregnancy on the basis of whether or not the child is likely to suffer from some debilitating condition such as chromosomal abnormality or a genetic disease. This type of genetic prescreening also is being done on embryos grown in vitro. For example, a colleague and his wife are both carriers for a mutation (i.e., are m +) causing Marfan's syndrome, which is a connective tissue disorder causing various problems including elongated bones. Marfan's syndrome has been in the headlines recently as recent popularized application of this method to clone a sheep named Dolly. Successful cloning of other animals has also been reported. It is very likely that cloning any mammal, including humans, will soon become technically trivial. Currently, it is routine to make specific changes in a gene in...
Minisatellite DNA also comprises tandemly repeated DNA sequences but in this case the arrays are smaller than those seen within satellite DNA, typically between 100 and 20 000 bp, and each repeat unit is between 6 and 100 bp in length. Such tandem repeats are integral to our genetic makeup simple repeats of TTAGGG, for example, constitute the DNA sequence found at telomeres (Box 7.3). Minisatellites are abundant in subtelom-eric and centromeric regions, and are found at a higher density on certain chromosomes such as chromosome 19. Most classical minisatellites are GC rich in their nucleotide content.
Using appropriate instruments, this basic technique could be expanded beyond the narrow range of light wavelengths that we see with our eyes to include the wider electromagnetic spectrum and the various particles associated with ionising radiation. As the CSM flew over the Moon, instruments in the SIM bay took advantage of the complete lack of a worthwhile atmosphere to determine the makeup of that small planet using a varied suite of techniques.
The reason for dinosaur survival through a major extinction and their subsequent worldwide dominance of terrestrial faunas is that they had the right genetic makeup for adaptations to new niches and consequent diversification in environments of the forthcoming Jurassic and Cretaceous Periods. The 140-million-year span of the Jurassic and Cretaceous, often hailed as the reign of the dinosaurs, thus followed the foundation of an already diverse and successful Late Triassic dinosaurian fauna. Dinosaurs were, and still are, by-products of an evolutionary process that continues today.
Earth's peculiarly oxygenated atmosphere was made as pollution by photosynthesizing life. Here, plants used sunlight to turn CO2 and water into oxygen and organic food. Life took over the cycles of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and water that dominate the planet's activities. The signs of life are so clearly evident in the makeup of our atmosphere and its differences from that of our CO2-dominated neighboring planets that it is obvious that they do not possess our kind of life. This doesn't mean, in itself, that these planets are lifeless. But, if we ask, Has life played the role on Venus and Mars that it has played on Earth the answer, my friend, is blowing in the carbon dioxide wind an unambiguous no.
The atmosphere, our breathing room, is a staggeringly small, but very special region of the Earth. By volume, the two main components of the atmospheric gas are molecular nitrogen (N2) and molecular oxygen (O2). Nitrogen accounts for 78 of the volume of the atmosphere and oxygen for a further 20.9 . The composition of the atmosphere now, however, is not what it first was, and as Chapter 5 will explain it was the appearance of life that slowly polluted and then changed the chemical makeup of the Earth's thin gaseous envelope. Water vapor (H2O) is a minor constituent of the Earth's atmosphere, but it makes the atmosphere wet, and this effect results in the formation of clouds. At any one time, there is a near 50 coverage of the Earth's surface by fragmented cloud banks, and this has important consequences for its heat balance. Figure 4.7 provides a dramatic overview of the Earth's upper atmosphere, revealing billowing cumulonimbus clouds (the thunderheads associated with powerful rain...
Optical depth measurements use the variable z, meaning height above the planet's surface into its atmosphere. In the planetary sciences, r is measured downward from the top of the atmosphere, and so r increases as z decreases, so that at the planet's surface, r is at its maximum, and z is zero. Each increment of r is written as dr. This is differential notation, used in calculus, meaning an infinitesimal change in r The equation for optical depth also uses the variable K (the Greek letter kappa) to stand for the opacity of the atmosphere, meaning the degree of light that can pass by the particular elemental makeup of the atmosphere. The Greek letter rho (p) stands for the density of the atmosphere, and dz, for infinitesimal change in z, height above the planet's surface.
The agencies of humankind are rapidly changing the chemical makeup of the surface of the Earth and its waters and oceans. Most of this chemical change comes from human-induced pollution, the result of municipal, industrial, and agricultural wastes. These wastes can be specifically categorized as nutrients, metals, and synthetic and industrial organic pollutants. All of these pollutants pose challenges to living organisms, and it is certain that future evolution will in some cases be triggered by reaction and adaptation to new levels of these substances.
The winners in the agricultural environment will be insects, rodents, and predators on both. As in the case of domesticated animals, it is likely that a great deal of evolutionary change has already occurred since the inception of agriculture nearly ten thousand years ago, unremarked by early humans. A taxonomist assessing the insect and rodent makeup of the world prior to the start of human agriculture might be surprised at how many species that are common today did not exist then. Rodents are known to have some of the fastest evolutionary rates on Earth a thousand years is more than sufficient time to create new species, and the ten thousand years since agriculture began may have seen a vast proliferation of small animals living among the crop rows. The same process has surely occurred among insects, perhaps on even a vaster scale than among the rodents. Because animals of this size are not readily observed or perturbed by human mitigation efforts, the surge of evolution is likely...
While the oceans have not undergone an equivalent of the megamammal extinction characterizing the last 50,000 years on land, it would be a mistake to assume that some extinction has not occurred. The exploitation of fisheries stocks has not eliminated more than a handful of species, but its effects, from the large-scale disappearance of whales and other marine mammals to the reduction of the large fish species used for human food, have utterly transformed the biological makeup of the oceans and the way in which energy flows through its communities.
Geology is the science that studies both the makeup of and changes that happen to Earth. Unlike astronomy, physics, and biology, which can trace their origins back thousands of years, geology is a fairly young science that goes back only a few hundred years. As they develop their theories, geologists often draw information from other sciences such as physics, chemistry, and biology. Modern-day geologists use a great many high-tech tools to assist them in their work. In geology's early days, however, just about the only thing that scientists had to work with were rocks. To the untrained eye, rocks may not seem too exciting. In fact, even today,
Among the unicellular eukaryotes the choanofla-gellates are likely the closest living relatives of the animals (Lang et al., 2002). Morphological and functional similarities between choanoflagellate cells and the choanocytes found in sponges (Porifera) have long been interpreted as providing support for a close relationship between animals and choanoflagellates (Maldonado, 2004). Increasing research efforts are now under way to elucidate the genomic makeup of the choanoflagel-lates, which could yield insights into the nature of the first metazoan genomes.
Rhyniella may represent an important stage in the evolution of insects, the origins of which are little understood. Recent analysis of the genetic makeup the genes of these insects suggests that they represent an evolutionary stage that branched off from the crustaceans and led to modern winged insects. Some scientists do not actually classify springtails as insects. This is because springtails appear to represent an evolutionary line related to crustaceans that may be unconnected to true insects, despite such similarities as the springtails' six-legged anatomy.
Described, we would not be changing its genetic makeup. By manipulating growth signaling factors we would be switching genes on and off at different times during development, but not changing the genes themselves. Genetically, chickenosaurus would still be a domestic chicken. And if it were somehow to breed with a chicken, the result would only be more chickens.
Three kinds of particle enter into the makeup of an atom, at least as envisaged in the Bohr model. Electrons we have already met. The other two, vastly larger than electrons but still tiny compared with anything we can imagine or experience with our senses, are called protons and neutrons, and they are found in the nucleus. They are almost the same size as each other. The number of protons is fixed for any given element and equal to the number of electrons. This number is called the atomic number. It is uniquely characteristic of an element, and there are no gaps in the list of atomic numbers - the famous periodic table.* Every number in the sequence corresponds to exactly one, and only one, element. The element with 1 for its atomic number is hydrogen, 2 is helium, 3 lithium, 4 beryllium, 5 boron, 6 carbon, 7 nitrogen, 8 oxygen, and so on up to high numbers like 92, which is the atomic number of uranium.
Calculation also demands another series of questions, ones feminists struggling with abortion decisions know intimately too for whom, for what, and by whom should a cost-benefit calculation be made, since more than one always entangled being is at stake and in play in all of these hard cases When I questioned the biologist Marc Bekoff in a panel session at the Kindred Spirits conference, he stated uncategorically that his make-or-break question is, Does the research benefit the animals In light of the history of the reduction of lab animals to machine tools and products for big pharma (the technoscientific pharmaceutical research-industrial complex), agribusiness, cosmetics, art performances, and much else, that question has particular force. Not asking that question seriously is, or ought to be, outside the pale of scientific practice.
A few minutes I ran to the bathroom and dumped out my cosmetics bag. Lather, rinse. Foundation, blush, eyeliner, eye shadow, mascara, lipstick. After spending way too much time applying my makeup, I kicked off my ragged jeans and pulled on this soft wool skirt I had just bought at Benetton. I'm generally a T-shirt-and-jeans kind of girl, and this was the most expensive article of clothing I'd ever owned. Now seemed as good a time as any to break it out.
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