Info

Total = 102 (+ 4, small, Ma)

Ma

= 1. Total = 92

note: NA = North America (excluding West Indies); SA = South America; Ma = Madagascar; Af = Africa; As = Asia, including Europe; Eu = Europe; Au = Australia; NG = New Guinea; MI = Mediterranean islands. fExtinct genus. *Extinct species or subspecies.

source: Derived from McKenna and Bell 1997 (© Columbia University Press).

note: NA = North America (excluding West Indies); SA = South America; Ma = Madagascar; Af = Africa; As = Asia, including Europe; Eu = Europe; Au = Australia; NG = New Guinea; MI = Mediterranean islands. fExtinct genus. *Extinct species or subspecies.

source: Derived from McKenna and Bell 1997 (© Columbia University Press).

lions and spotted hyenas of Africa, once lived in cold climates with the woolly mammoths. The extinction of a primate species, the Neanderthals, by anatomically modern people in western Europe around 50,000 years ago is reviewed by Richard Klein (1999). This was close to the time of the extinctions of hippo and temperate rhino in Eurasia (Stuart 1999). In near time, tropical Asia, like Africa, suffered minor losses, less than 10 percent of its megafauna. Unlike those in the Americas, the losses were not spontaneous but more gradual.

None of this means that Africa and Asia can be downplayed in our explorations of what happened to the Pleistocene world. Pleistocene extinctions are an important piece of evidence in assessing the causes of near-time extinctions worldwide. Plio-Pleistocene losses of Afro-Asian elephants, suids, large carnivores, and primates may reflect hominid competition or predation (Klein 1999; Martin 1966, 1967a, 1984; Surovell and Brattingham 2005). Of all the continents, only Antarctica, home of pinniped rookeries and penguin breeding colonies, but never of prehistoric humans living off the land, escaped near-time losses.

Was this article helpful?

0 0

Post a comment