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Figure 4.2 Natural selection on eyespot size in Bicyclus safitza butterflies demonstrated by field experiments in the dry season in Africa. A, Probability of recapture over a grid of forest traps for releases of reared butterflies of 10 phenotypic classes ranging from extreme dry-season form (DSF - no eyespots) to extreme wet-season form (WSF - very large eye-spots). The WSF shows much higher mortality. B, Survivorship curves for releases of about 1800 DSF butterflies collected in another forest and divided among three treatments: unpainted controls; painted with conspicuous eyespots; and painted with inconspicuous eyespots. Butterflies painted with conspicuous eyespots show a dramatically higher mortality consistent with the eyespots making them easier to find by predators in the dry season. Lines show periods of age-independent survival for each cohort. From Brakefield and Frankino (2007).

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