Figure 16.2 Phylogeny of selected extant and fossil land-plant taxa, showing predicted character acquisitions on each branch (in grey, s: sporo-phyte; g: gametophyte). Approximate timing of acquisition is given and is reflected by the bar at the base of the figure (P: Permian; T: Triassic; J: Jurassic; C: Cretaceous) using the time scales of Gradstein et al. (2005). Numbers after taxon names indicate the number of extant species within the taxon, taken from Palmer et al. (2004). Asterisks indicate groups that are putatively paraphyletic. Protracheophytes refers to non-vascular poly-sporangiates including Aglaophyton major, Horneophyton lignieri and some non-vascular Cooksonia-like fossils; zosterophylls refers to Zosterophyllop-sida and Lycophytina; trimerophytes refers to taxa such as Psilophyton and Pertica (Crane et al. 2004). Cladoxylopsids refers to Cladoxylon, Hyenia, Pseudo-sporochnus and Lorophyton goense (Fairon-Demaret and Li 1993). On the bar at the right, dark boxes indicate extant taxa and light bars indicate fossil taxa. A: angiosperms; P: progymnosperms (paraphyletic grade); G: gymnos-perms; M: monilophytes; L: lycophytes; R: Rhyniaceae; B: bryophytes. Bryophytes are depicted as paraphyletic in accordance with Qiu et al. (2006); lycophyte relationships are in accordance with Bateman (1994) and DiMichele and Bateman (1996); monilophyte and seed plant relationships are in accordance with Palmer et al. (2004).

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