solutions on an 'as needed' basis," the two archaeologists write._
Klein's view that there was no modern behavior in Africa prior to 50,000 years ago, once uncontradicted by any evidence, has been challenged by several individual finds. Christopher Henshilwood of the University of Bergen in Norway recently found a set of 41 shells, all perforated in the same way as if meant to serve as beads on a necklace. The shells were excavated from the Blombos cave in southern Africa; the sand in which they were found has been dated to 76,000 years ago by a physical 32
technique. Dates of this age are beyond the reach of the reliable radiocarbon method, and the methods used instead are considerably less accurate. If the 76,000 year date is right, however, and if the pierced shells are indeed beads, it would mean that decorative art, a practice associated with behaviorally modern humans, began much earlier than supposed.
Another behavior generally considered modern is fishing. Hence a possible problem for the Klein position is eight barbed points made of bone, which could have been used to harpoon fish. The points come from the Katanda riverside site in Zaire from strata about 100,000 years old. Klein believes that the bone points, if directly dated, would turn out to be less than 12,000 years old.
A difficulty for Klein's case has long been that of the very early date by which modern humans apparently reached Australia. Since this feat required boat building and some navigation skills, it would certainly count as a modern behavior. The date of human arrival in the continent has long been set at 60,000 years ago, based on a burial at a site near Lake Mungo in southeastern Australia. The finding indicated that modern behavior had been attained in Africa even earlier. But the Lake Mungo date recently turned out to be incorrect: the burial site is only 42,000 years old, with artifacts suggesting an earlier human presence at somewhere between
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Lets start by identifying what exactly certain boats are. Sometimes the terminology can get lost on beginners, so well look at some of the most common boats and what theyre called. These boats are exactly what the name implies. They are meant to be used for fishing. Most fishing boats are powered by outboard motors, and many also have a trolling motor mounted on the bow. Bass boats can be made of aluminium or fibreglass.