sudden death and mutilating its victims." Keeley's conclusions are drawn from the archaeological evidence of the past, including the Upper Paleolithic period, and from anthropological studies of primitive peoples. These include three groups of foragers that survived until recent times—the !Kung San, Eskimos and Australian aborigines—as well as tribal farmers such the Yanomamo of Brazil and the pig and yam cultivating societies of New Guinea. To minimize risk, primitive societies chose tactics like the ambush and the dawn raid. Even so, their casualty rates were enormous, not least because they did not take prisoners. That policy was compatible with their usual strategic goal: to exterminate the opponent's society. Captured warriors were killed on the spot, except in the case of the Iroquois, who took captives home to torture them before death, and certain tribes in Colombia, who liked to fatten prisoners before eating them. Warfare was a routine occupation of primitive societies. Some 65% were at war continuously, according to Keeley's estimate,

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