ecological explanation. All chimpanzee communities habitually use tools, but the use of tools varies widely from one chimp community to another. Chimps in the Tai forest in the Ivory Coast use stones as hammers to open nuts; Gombe's chimps have never learned or invented this useful art. Not a single case of habitual tool use has yet been observed among 176

bonobos._That suggests that chimps have a genetic propensity to use tools and bonobos do not.

If the variations between chimp communities are mostly due to culture, the constant features of chimp social behavior are probably framed by genes. And presumably a shift in that genetic framework for social behavior explains the difference between chimpanzees' social arrangements and those of their cousins, the bonobos, from whom they have been separated for some two million years.

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