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sometime after 10,000 years ago, Wallace suggested.

These dates fitted with those derived by several other research groups working on mitochondrial DNA, which ranged from 10,000 to 40,000 years ago. But it now seems that most of these dates, for reasons that are not wholly clear, may be far too old. A second group of geneticists has now entered the fray on the back of the Y chromosome, and they have made a strong case for much younger dates of entry, broadly coinciding with Greenberg's original thesis. The Y chromosome is usually harder to date than mitochondrial DNA, but in the case of the Americas geneticists have been helped by finding a mutation on the Y that occurred just before the first entrants crossed into Beringia and the Americas. The mutation, known as M242, seems to have cropped up between

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