15,000 and 18,000 years ago, according to Mark Seielstad and colleagues. It occurred just before another mutation on the Y chromosome, called M3, which is found almost exclusively in American Indians. So on this evidence the entry to the Americas could not have occurred earlier than 15,000 to 18,000 years ago.

The genetic, archaeological and linguistic data have been drawn together in what may prove to be a convincing synthesis by Andres Ruiz-Linares of University College, London. He and colleagues conducted a large survey of Y chromosome variations in Mongolians and in American Indians, mostly from South America. They conclude that two major waves of migration from Siberia

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