in the 1963 book is a tremendous advance."_

The larger point of Greenberg's critics was that in establishing relationships among languages he had failed to use what is known as the comparative method, the orthodox approach to classifying languages. The method is based on identifying sets of related words that change in predictable ways between members of a language family. The French and Italian words for "goat" are not particularly similar, but when compared with other words it is clear that a "k" sound in Italian corresponds with a "ch" sound in French, and a "p" in Italian corresponds with an "f" or "v" 281

in French. These sound correspondences exist because many French and Italian words are cognates, or descendants of the same parent word in their common ancestor tongue of Latin.

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