nothing to do with the brain, such as conferring resistance to disease. But there is at present no evidence that the microcephalin or ASPM genes do anything other than determine brain size. Some genes do play more than one role, but no other functions have yet been detected for microcephalin or ASPM. Their role in the brain, however, is well established. They first came to light because they are disabled in people with microcephaly, causing the brain to be much smaller than usual, particularly in the cerebral hemispheres that are the site of the brain's higher cognitive functions. This strange condition seemed a throwback to the time 2.5 million years ago when the human brain was a third of its present size. In 2004 Lahn established that microcephalin and ASPM, along with several other brain genes, had undergone far more rapid evolution along the line of descent from

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