groups, such as H, also show signs of adaptation to cold conditions. The adaptation of mitochondria to climate, Wallace believes, could explain why when you look at a map of the world the mitochondrial lineages seem to have a more limited distribution than the Y chromosome lineages. The Y chromosome carries rather few genes, most of them related to male fertility, and there is no reason to suppose it is affected by climate. This might explain why men have ranged farther afield than women, at least on a large scale. On a smaller geographical scale, the genetic evidence shows that women move farther than men, presumably reflecting the fact that most human groups are patrilocal and it is the women who move to other societies to find marriage partners.143

Adaptation to cold may have affected human populations in other important ways, particularly during the Last Glacial Maximum. In Europe, the ice sheets emptied all northern and central latitudes, which were repopulated many generations later by those who had survived in the southern refuges of Spain or the Ukraine. A similar phenomenon seems to have happened in the eastern half of Eurasia and may be responsible for one of the salient puzzles in human population history, the origin of the mongoloids.

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