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from the host population in each country. The Jewish men, arriving perhaps as traders and presumably unmarried, took wives from the local population in each country, and it seems then converted their wives to Judaism. Once the community was established and reached sufficient size, it became closed; no more wives were taken from the host population, and community members married among themselves. With no fresh infusions from the local population, the mitochondrial DNA in each Jewish community fell under the influence of genetic drift, making it look less and less like that of the local version from which it originated.

If this explanation is correct, the members of a Jewish community are generally a genetic admixture between Middle Easterners (the founding fathers) and the host population of each country (the founding mothers). This could explain why Jews often resemble the people of their host country, yet also in some respects resemble one another.

The genetic findings are generally compatible with Jewish historical accounts, though not in every detail. The ancestral Jewish population is ancient but came from a mix of Middle Eastern men, DNA analysis indicates, not a single patriarch. Many Jewish communities have accounts or traditions of how they were founded, often to escape persecution or at the invitation of a friendly potentate. The Iraqi Jewish community (whose members now live mostly in Israel) is said to have been founded after the destruction of the first temple in 586 BC. The Bene Israel of Bombay say their ancestors fled to India to escape the persecution of Antiochus Epiphanus, who ruled from 175 to 163 BC. The DNA analysis in general confirms that Jewish communities are ancient, though it cannot place an exact date on their founding. But the circumstance it suggests for their origin, that of single Jewish men taking local wives, indicates that at least some Jewish communities probably began as trading outposts, not by the mass emigration of families.

The modern Jewish population falls into three main groups, based on ancestral place of origin. Ashkenazi Jews lived mostly in Germany and eastern Europe and, from at least the sixth century AD, spoke a common language, Yiddish; Sephardic Jews are those expelled from Spain and Portugal in AD 1492 during the Spanish Inquisition; and Oriental Jews are those who have always lived in the Near East. Of the 5.7 million Jews living in the United States, some 90% are of Ashkenazic origin; of the 4.7 million Jews in Israel, 47% are Ashkenazic, 30% Sephardic and 23% Oriental.312

Jewish status, except for converts, is now defined by maternal descent. This practice, however, goes back only to Talmudic times, the period from around 200 BC to AD 500. In ancient Israel, tribal affiliation was determined by patrilineal descent, as were the two castes of hereditary priests, the cohens and the levites. After the destruction of the temple, the cohens were left with little to do and power passed into the hands of the rabbinate. The rabbis established matrilineal descent as the basis of Jewish identity. It is sometimes suggested they did so in wise appreciation of the fact that maternal descent is a fact and paternal descent only a probability; but a modern scholar, Shaye Cohen of Harvard University, believes rabbinic tradition and the influence of Roman law 313

are likelier reasons.

The patrilineal priestly tradition still exists, and has afforded geneticists another deep insight into Jewish history. Cohens and levites continue to carry out ceremonial roles in certain congregations. Cohens are called first to the reading of the Torah in synagogue, and are asked on special occasions to bless the congregation. (The cohen's blessing, signaled by holding up the hand with a split between the middle and the ring fingers, is familiar to many non-Jews; it was adapted by Leonard Nimoy, who remembered seeing it as a boy in synagogue, as the Vulcan greeting for his role as Spock in Star Trek.)314 Oral tradition holds that all cohens, or cohanim, are descended from Aaron, the brother of Moses and the first high priest. The Jewish priesthood is thought to have been established some 3,300 years ago and to have passed from father to son ever since. This fact was on the mind of Karl Skorecki, a medical researcher at the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology in Haifa, one morning when he was sitting in synagogue and the Torah was being read. The cohen doing the first reading was a Sephardic Jew. Skorecki, whose family is Ashkenazic, himself comes from a line of cohanim. The thought occurred to him that though he and the Sephardi differed strongly in physical appearance, they must both have

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