picked up instantly on the hint being conveyed. Because even puppies have this ability, it is probably innate and would have been a behavior selected for in the domestication process, Hare concludes, though it may go along with tameability rather than being a separate behavior.

That still leaves open the question of what humans were hoping to achieve when they set about domesticating wolves, given that the eventual outcome could hardly be foreseen. Ray Coppinger, a dog behavior expert at Hampshire College, believes that people can take little credit for the process; it was wolves who domesticated themselves. Wolves are skillful hunters, but they also scavenge. They would have hung around campsites for scraps, and those that learned to be less afraid of people would have flourished, in his view. "It was natural selection—the dogs did it, not people," he says. "The trouble with the theory that people domesticated dogs is that it requires thousands of dogs, just as Belyaev used thousands of foxes." From the semi-tame, camp-following wolves, he believes, people may have adopted some cubs into

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