University, said in objecting to race-based medicine. Understandably enough, any suggestion of a genetic basis for racial differences can engender strong passions. Disputes have long swirled around intelligence tests, which at present show differences between the various races of the United States. There is broad overlap between all populations but in terms of average score, Asian Americans come out somewhat higher than people of European ancestry, while African Americans score lower. While this fact is generally accepted, there is little agreement as to the reason. Some psychologists claim that IQ tests measure general intelligence, which they believe is in substantial degree inherited, and that the tests predict performance in later life. Others see the tests as evidence only of differences in education and other cultural advantages, and deny that any genetic explanation is applicable. This dispute, whose merits lie beyond the scope of this book, has long made the study of race controversial.

A less vexed instance of racial differences is provided by sports records. Some 95% of the top times in sprinting are held by West

Africans, or African Americans who trace their ancestry to West Africa, according to Jon Entine. Entine, a filmmaker, made a documentary about black dominance of sport and then wrote a book, Taboo, so called because of the obloquy rained down on anyone who suggests a genetic basis for any aspect of race. West Africans' dominance of sprinting is so complete that "all of the thirty-two finalists in the last four Olympic men's 100-meter

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