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the household and found that they could be trained.

Hunter-gathering peoples often bring baby wild animals back to camp and keep them as pets until they become unmanageable. James Serpell, an expert on dog behavior at the University of Pennsylvania, thinks this is a more likely basis for domestication than that people adopted wolves that had taken up life as scavengers. If the wolf was domesticated only once, from a group of related animals, there may have been some special feature of these wolves' behavior that made them easier to train, Serpell suggests. However the bond between man and dog was first forged, it proved unbreakable. The Siberians who first ventured into North America via the lost continent of Beringia, the now sunken lands of the Bering strait between Siberia and Alaska, took their dogs with them. This is a surprising finding since researchers had assumed American Indians would have domesticated their own dogs from North American wolves. But Jennifer Leonard, of the University of California, Los Angeles, extracted ancient mitochondrial DNA from pre-Columbian dog cemeteries in Mexico, Peru and Bolivia. She found they matched the DNA of gray wolves from the Old World and not of wolves from the New World.

The DNA from the dog cemeteries clustered into five groups, suggesting that five different dogs, or sets of related dogs, entered the New World and were the founding mothers of all pre-Columbian dogs.^34 For unknown reasons, these pre-Columbian dog lineages have all disappeared. American Indians seem to have preferred the dogs brought in by Europeans. Breeds of dog that were developed in the New World, such as the Eskimo dog, the Mexican hairless dog and the Chesapeake Bay retriever, are all derived from European dogs.

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