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making them more digestible. There is no evidence that ergaster did in fact use fire, but since ashes do not preserve well, the evidence of ergaster's cookouts may have been lost.

Paleoanthropologists see signs in ergaster's body structure that it had made a significant transition from an apelike to a more human mode of social organization. Ergaster is the first species along the human lineage to show a sharp reduction in male size compared with female, although the females are still smaller. This is a hint of some important change in social structure, very possibly a switch from the separate male and female hierarchies of chimp communities to the male-female bond that characterizes human societies.

Such a shift does not imply anything as extreme as monogamy, but it could mark at least the beginning of a family structure in which males took some interest in protecting and feeding the mothers of their children. Tubers, assuming they had become part of ergaster's diet, are items that women can collect. A greater role for women in providing food might have promoted the pattern of greater cooperation between the sexes, as is implied in the decreased male-to-female size ratio. Further evidence of change in relations between the sexes comes from ergaster's anatomy. Its pelvis was narrower than habilis's, and the smaller birth canal meant that much of the infants' extra brain size had to be acquired by growth after birth. This in turn means that infants would have had to be carried, making the women more vulnerable. The fathers might have found that in order to protect their genetic legacy they needed to spend more time guarding their specific offspring and the children's mother, not just the group's general territory. Such behavior, and a closer bond between parents, would have been genetically favored if it led to more surviving offspring. That's a long chain of inference from the simple

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