of 25 years is preferred). A general date of about 3,000 years ago is of particular interest since it would place the first cohen at the beginning of First Temple Period of Jewish history.

The fact that only 50% or so of cohens, depending on the population, carry the cohen Y chromosome means that the rest must result from a discrepancy, at some point in their lineage, between the biological father and the father of record. Adoption cannot be invoked since the priesthood cannot be transferred to adopted sons, which leaves infidelity as the explanation. But as with the case of the English Sykeses, it takes only a small rate of nonpaternity in each generation to produce a large proportion of males with discrepant paternity many generations later.

Since the cohen lineage stretches back three times as far as that of the Sykeses, the fidelity of cohen wives must have been even higher. James Boster, an anthropologist at the University of Connecticut, calculates on the basis of the Skorecki team's figures that the rate of nonpaternity was 1.2% per generation among Ashkenazic cohanim and 0.4% among Sephardic cohanim. (This estimate would of course not pick up any cases where a cohen's wife had taken another cohen as her lover.)

Such infidelity rates are extremely low compared with the nonpaternity rates of 5% and more that are assumed typical of contemporary Western societies. Boster and his colleagues ask how cohanim through the ages secured such exemplary fidelity from their wives without resorting to the coercive measures used by men in other societies, such as purdah or chastity belts. They point to Jewish law and custom, under which intercourse is regarded as ritually impure from the beginning of a woman's menstruation until seven days after its end, whereupon it is the husband's duty to make love to her. Indeed he must do so immediately on her return from the ritual cleansing bath. This sage religious obligation has a strong consequence on the biological plane: it ensures that first intercourse, after several days abstinence, coincides with the three day period of peak fertility prior to ovulation. "This practice, coupled with extreme sanctions against adultery, . . . could account for these very high degrees of paternity

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