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13% of Europeans have Neolithic heritage._

It is only a coincidence of timing that associates these Y chromosomes with the Neolithic, and, given the approximate nature of dates derived from genetics, it would be reassuring to have some more direct link. One has emerged from the painted pottery and figurines associated with Neolithic sites. The pottery, known as LBK from the German words for "linear band ceramics," was made in the Near East, the home of the Neolithic revolution, as well as in Greece, the Balkans and southern Italy.

Two Stanford University researchers, Roy King and Peter Underhill, matched the geographical distribution of LBK pottery and figurines with that of the four Y chromosome lineages that entered Europe at the beginning of the Neolithic age. They found that one lineage in particular, marked by the mutation known as M172, was found in almost exactly the same locations as the

LBK culture.1^4 The present day male population with the highest known frequency of M172 happens to live in Konya, a city near the southern coast of Turkey and some 60 miles from the well known Neolithic site of £atal Hoyuk. No less than 40% of men in Konya carry M172 on their Y chromosomes. The finding supports the idea that Neolithic farmers from the region of £atal Hoyuk pushed into Europe, gradually mixing with the local population. Their farming techniques and pottery making became universal, even though their genes did not. The intriguing question of whether they introduced the Indo-European languages into Europe is addressed in chapter 10.

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