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Neanderthals and all other non-modern people."_

It was obviously a genetic change, not a cultural one, that endowed the australopithecines with upright stature 4.4 million years ago. It was a suite of genetic changes 2.5 million years ago that remodeled the australopithecines into Homo habilis with its larger brain and tool-making ability. A third far-reaching genetic makeover 1.7 million years ago reshaped habilis into the more humanlike erectus and caused a behavioral transition from male and female hierarchies to the pair bond system. And it must have required a fourth genetic revolution, Klein believes, to make possible the emergence of behaviorally modern humans 50,000 years ago. That genetic revolution was evidently profound enough to affect many different aspects of human social behavior and technical skills, all characterized by a striking new capacity for innovation. The most likely cause of such a transformation, in Klein's view, would have been the emergence of language.

For a social species, nothing could make a greater difference than the ability to transmit precise thoughts from the mind of one individual to another. Language would have made small groups more cohesive, enabled long range planning and fostered the transmission of local knowledge and learned skills.

It is certain that modern humans could speak before they left Africa, so language must have evolved sometime before 50,000 years ago, and after 5 million years ago when the human line split from that of chimpanzees. Looking in the archaeological record for some sharp increase in behavioral complexity that might signal the evolution of language, there are few likelier moments than the transition from anatomically modern to behaviorally modern humans.

Klein's argument is not universally accepted by other archaeologists, some of whom have attacked a principal element in his case, the sharp discontinuity he sees between the behaviors present at the end of the Middle Stone Age and the beginning of the Later Stone Age. Two critics, Sally McBrearty of the University of Connecticut and Alison S. Brooks of George Washington University, argue that there was a gradual accumulation of advanced behaviors throughout the Middle Stone Age that eventually added up to modern behavior. "As a whole the African archaeological record shows that the transition to fully modern behavior was not the result of a biological or cultural revolution, but the fitful expansion of a shared body of knowledge, and the application of novel

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