General texts

Dawkins, Richard. The Ancestor's Tale: A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Life. Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London, UK, 2004.

de Duve, Christian. Life Evolving: Molecules, Mind, and Meaning. Oxford University

Press, New York, USA, 2002. Gould, Stephen Jay. Wonderful Life. The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History.

Penguin, London, UK, 1989. Knoll, Andrew H. Life on a Young Planet: The First Three Billion Years of Evolution on Earth. Princeton University Press, Princeton, USA, 2003.

Lane, Nick. Oxygen: The Molecule that Made the World. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 2002.

Margulis, Lynn. Origin ofEukaryotic Cells. Yale University Press, Yale, USA, 1970.

Mayr, Ernst . What Evolution Is. Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London, UK, 2002.

Morris, Simon Conway. Life's Solution: Inevitable Humans in a Lonely Universe. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2003.

The origin of eukaryotic cells

Martin, W., Hoffmeister, M., Rotte, C., and Henze, K. An overview of endosymbiotic models for the origins of eukaryotes, their ATP-producing organelles (mitochondria and hydrogenosomes) and their heterotrophic lifestyle. Biological Chemistry 382: 1521-1539; 2001.

Sagan, L. On the origin of mitosing cells. Journal of Theoretical Biology 14: 255-274;


Vellai, T., and Vida, G. The origin of eukaryotes: The difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 266:

1571-1577; 1999.

Catastrophic loss of the cell wall

Cavalier-Smith, T. The phagotrophic origin of eukaryotes and phylogenetic classification of Protozoa. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 52:

297-354; 2002.

Maynard-Smith, John, and Szathmary, Eors. The Origins of Life, Chapter 6: The Origin of Eukaryotic Cells. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 1999.

Bacterial cytoskeleton van den Ent, F., Amos, L. A., and Lowe, J. Prokaryotic origin of the actin cytoskeleton.

Nature 413:39-44; 2001. Jones, L. J., Carballido-Lopez, R., and Errington, J. Control of cell shape in bacteria: Helical, actin-like filaments in Bacillus subtilis. Cell 104: 913-922; 2001.

Discovery of the archaea

Keeling, P. J., and Doolittle, W. F. Archaea: Narrowing the gap between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 92: 5761-5764;


Woese, C. R., and Fox, G. E. Phylogenetic structure of the prokaryotic domain: The primary kingdoms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 74: 5088-5090; 1977.

The archezoa

Cavalier-Smith, T. A 6-kingdom classification and a unified phylogeny. In H. E. A. Schenk and W. Schwemmler (eds.), Endocytobiology II, pp. 1027-1034. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, Germany, 1983.

-Eukaryotes with no mitochondria. Nature 326:332-333; 1987.

-Archaebacteria and Archezoa. Nature 339:100-101; 1989.

Rickettsia as the ancestor of mitochondria

Andersson, J. O., and Andersson, S. G. A century of typhus, lice and Rickettsia. Research in

Microbiology 151:143-150; 2000. Andersson, S. G., Zomorodipour, A., Andersson J. O. , Sicheritz-Ponten, T., Alsmark U. C., Podowski, R. M., Naslund, A. K., Eriksson, A. S., Winkler, H. H., Kurland, C. G. The genome sequence of Rickettsia prowazekii and the origin of mitochondria. Nature 396:133-140; 1998.

Andersson, S. G. E., Karlberg, O., Canback, B., and Kurland, C. G. On the origin of mitochondria: A genomics perspective. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 358:165-179; 2003.

Collapse of the archezoa

Clark, C. G., and Roger, A. J. Direct evidence for secondary loss of mitochondria in Entamoeba hitolytica. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 92: 6518-6521; 1995.

Keeling, P. J. A kingdom's progress: Archezoa and the origin of eukaryotes. Bioessays 20: 87-95; 1998.

Methanogens as the host cell

Martin, W., and Embley, T. M. Early evolution comes full circle. Nature 431:134-136; 2004. Pereira, S. L., Grayling, R. A., Lurz, R., and Reeve, J. N. Archaeal nucleosomes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 94:12633-12637; 1997. Rivera, M., Jain, R., Moore, J. E., and Lake, J. A. Genomic evidence for two functionally distinct gene classes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 95: 6239-6244; 1998.

Rivera, M. C., and Lake, J. A. The ring of life provides evidence for a genome fusion origin of eukaryotes. Nature431:152; 2004.

Hydrogen hypothesis

Akhmanova, A., Voncken, F., van Alen, T., van Hoek, A., Boxma, B., Vogels, G., Veenhuis, M., and Hackstein, J. H. A hydrogenosome with a genome. Nature 396: 527-528;


Boxma, B., de Graat, R. M., and van der Staay, G. W., et al. An anaerobic mitochondrion that produces hydrogen. Nature 434: 74-79; 2005. Embley, T. M., and Martin, W. A hydrogen-producing mitochondrion. Nature 396:

517-519; 1998.

Gray, M. W. Evolutionary biology: The hydrogenosome's murky past. Nature 434: 29-31; 2005.

Martin, W., and Müller, M. The hydrogen hypothesis for the first eukaryote. Nature 392:

-Russell, M. J. On the origins of cells: A hypothesis for the evolutionary transitions from abiotic geochemistry to chemoautotrophic prokaryotes, and from prokaryotes to nucleated cells. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 358:

Müller, M., and Martin, W. The genome of Rickettsia prowazekii and some thoughts on the origin of mitochondria and hydrogenosomes. Bioessays 21:377-381; 1999.

Anaerobic mitochondria

Horner, D. S., Heil, B., Happe, T., and Embley, T. M. Iron hydrogenases—ancient enzymes in modern eukaryotes. Trends in Biochemical Sciences 27:148-153; 2002.

Sutak, R., Dolezal, P., Fiumera, H. L., Hardy, I., Dancis, A., Delgadillo-Correa, M., Johnson, P. J., Mujller, M., and Tachezy, J. Mitochondrial-type assembly of FeS centers in the hydrogenosomes of the amitochondriate eukaryote Trichomonas vaginalis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 101:10368-10373; 2004.

Theissen, U., Hoffmeister, M., Grieshaber, M., and Martin, W. Single eubacterial origin of eukaryotic sulfide: Quinone oxidoreductase, a mitochondrial enzyme conserved from the early evolution of eukaryotes during anoxic and sulfidic times. Molecular Biology and Evolution 20(9): 1564-1574; 2003.

Tielens, A. G., Rotte, C., van Hellemond, J. J., and Martin, W. Mitochondria as we don't know them. Trends in Biochemical Sciences 27:564-572; 2002.

Van der Giezen, M., Slotboom, D. J., Horner, D. S., Dyal, P. L., Harding, M., Xue, G. P., Embley, T. M., and Kunji, E. R. Conserved properties of hydrogenosomal and mitochondrial ADP/ATP carriers: A common origin for both organelles. EMBO (European Molecular Biology Organization) Journal 21:572-579; 2002.

Ocean chemistry

Anbar, A. D., and Knoll, A. H. Proterozoic ocean chemistry and evolution: A bioinorganic bridge? Science 297:1137-1142; 2002.

Canfield, D. E. A new model of Proterozoic ocean chemistry. Nature 396:450-452; 1998.

-Habicht K. S., and Thamdrup B. The Archean sulfur cycle and the early history of atmospheric oxygen. Science288: 658-661; 2000.

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  • cody
    How does kingdom archezoa helps the economy?
    8 years ago

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