General texts

Buss, Leo. The Evolution of the Individual. Princeton University Press, New Jersey, USA, 1987.

Dawkins, Richard. The Selfish Gene. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 1976.

Dawkins, Richard The Extended Phenotype. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 1984.

-The Ancestor's Tale: A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Life. Weidenfeld & Nicolson,

London, UK, 2004.

Harold, Franklin. The Vital Force: A Study of Bioenergetics. W. H. Freeman and Co., New York, USA, 1986.

Klarsfeld, André, and Revah, Frédéric. The Biology of Death: Origins of Mortality. Cornell

University Press, Ithaca, USA, 2004. Margulis, Lynn. Gaia is a tough bitch. In John Brockman (ed.), The Third Culture: Beyond the Scientific Revolution. Simon & Schuster, New York, USA, 1995. Maynard-Smith, John, and Szathmary, Eörs. The Major Transitions of Evolution. W. H. Freeman, San Francisco, USA, 1995.

Levels of selection

Blackstone, N. W. A units-of-evolution perspective on the endosymbiont theory of the origin of the mitochondrion. Evolution 49:785-796; 1995. Maynard-Smith, J. The units of selection. Novartis Foundation Symposium 213: 203-211; 1998.

Mayr, E. The objects of selection. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 94:2091-2094; 1997.

Apoptosis and the evolution of multicellularity

Huettenbrenner, S., Maier, S., Leisser, C., Polgar, D., Strasser, S., Grusch, M., and Krupitza, G. The evolution of cell death programs as prerequisites of multicellularity. Mutation Research 543:235-249; 2003. Michod, R. E., and Roze, D. Cooperation and conflict in the evolution of multicellularity. Heredity 86:1-7; 2001.

Discovery of apoptosis

Featherstone, C. Andrew Wyllie: From left field to centre stage. The Lancet 351: 192;


Kerr, J. F. History of the events leading to the formulation of the apoptosis concept.

Toxicology 181-182:471-474; 2002. -Wyllie A. H., and Currie A. R. Apoptosis: A basic biological phenomenon with wideranging implications in tissue kinetics. British Journal of Cancer 26:239-257; 1972.

Caspase enzymes

Barinaga, M. Cell suicide: By ICE, not fire. Science 263:754-756; 1994.

Horvitz, H. R. Nobel lecture: Worms, life and death. Bioscience Reports 23:239-303; 2003.

-Sulston, J. E. Joy of the worm. Genetics 126:287-292; 1990.

Wiens, M., Krasko, A., Perovic, S., and Muller, W. E. G. Caspase-mediated apoptosis in sponges: cloning and function of the phylogenetic oldest apoptotic proteases from Metazoa. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1593:179-189; 2003.

Mitochondrial involvement in apoptosis

Brown, G. C. Mitochondria and cell death. The Biochemist 27(3): 15-18; 2005. Zamzami, N., Marchetti, P., Castedo, M., Zanin, C., Vayssière, J. L., Petit P. X., and Kroemer G. Reduction in mitochondrial potential constitutes an early irreversible step of programmed lymphocyte death in vivo. Journal of Experimental Medicine 181: 1661-1672; 1995.

---Decaudin, D., Macho, A., Hirsch, T., Susin, S. A., Petit, P. X., Mignotte, B., and Kroemer, G. Sequential reduction of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and generation of reactive oxygen species in early programmed cell death. Journal of Experimental Medicine 182:367-377; 1995.

-Susin, S. A., Marchetti, P., Hirsch, T., Gomez-Monterret, I., Castedo, M., and

Kroemer, G. Mitochondrial control of nuclear apoptosis. Journal of Experimental Medicine 183:1533-1544; 1996.

Cytochrome c release

Balk, J., and Leaver, C. J. The PET-1-CMS mitochondrial mutation in sunflower is associated with premature programmed cell death and cytochrome c release. The Plant Cell 13:1803-1818; 2001.

Kluck, R. M., Bossy-Wetzel, E., Green, D. R., and Newmeyer, D. D. The release of cytochrome c from mitochondria: A primary site for Bcl-2 regulation of apoptosis. Science 275:1132-1136; 1997.

Liu, X., Kim, C. N., Yang, J., Jemmerson, R., and Wang, X. Induction of apoptotic program in cell-free extracts: Requirement for dATP and cytochrome c. Cell 86:147-157;


Ott, M., Robertson, J. D., Gogvadze, V., Zhitotovsky, B., and Orrenius, S. Cytochrome c release from mitochondria proceeds by a two-step process. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 99:1259-1263; 2002.

Yang, J., Liu, X., Bhalla, K., Kim, C. N., Ibrado, A. M., Cai, J., Peng, T. I., Jones, D. P., and Wang, X. Prevention of apoptosis by Bcl-2: Release of cytochrome c from mitochondria blocked. Science 275:1129-1132; 1997.

Other mitochondrial apoptotic proteins

Candé, C., Cecconi, F., Dessen, P., and Kroemer, G. Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) pathway: Key to the conserved caspase-independent pathways of cell death? Journal of Cell Science 115: 4727-4734; 2002.

van Gurp, M., Festjens, N., van Loo, G., Saelens, X., and Vandenabeele, P. Mitochondrial intermembrane proteins in cell death. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 304:487-497; 2003.

Bcl-2 family

Adams, J. M., and Cory, S. Life-or-death decisions by the Bcl-2 protein family. Trends in Biochemical Sciences 26:61-66; 2001.

Orrenius, S. Mitochondrial regulation of apoptotic cell death. Toxicology Letters 149: 19-23; 2004.

Zamzami, N., and Kroemer, G. Apoptosis: Mitochondrial membrane permeabilization— the (w)hole story? Current Biology 13: R71-R73; 2003.

Link between intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis

Sprick, M. R., and Walczak, H. The interplay between the Bcl-2 family and death receptor-mediated apoptosis. Biochemica et Biophysica Acta 1644: 125-132; 2004.

Bacterial origin of apoptotic genes

Ameisen, J. C. On the origin, evolution, and nature of programmed cell death: A timeline of four billion years. Cell Death and Differentiation 9:367-393; 2002.

Koonin, E. V., and Aravind, L. Origin and evolution of eukaryotic apoptosis: The bacterial connection. Cell Death and Differentiation 9:394-404; 2002.

Host-symbiont relationships in the evolution of apoptosis

Blackstone, N. W., and Green, D. R. The evolution of a mechanism of cell suicide. Bioessays21: 84-88; 1999.

-Kirkwood, T. B. L. Mitochondria and programmed cell death: 'Slave revolt' or community homeostasis? In P. Hammerstein (ed.), Genetic and Cultural Evolution of Cooperation. MIT Press, Cambridge MA, USA 2003.

Frade, J. M., and Michaelidis, T. M. Origin of eukaryotic programmed cell death: A consequence of aerobic metabolism? Bioessays 19: 827-832; 1997.

Müller, A., Günther, D., Düx, F., Naumann, M., Meyer T. F., and Rudel, T. Neisserial porin (PorB) causes rapid calcium influx in target cells and induces apoptosis by the activation of cysteine proteases. EMBO (European Molecular Biology Organization) Journal 18:339-352; 1999.

Naumann, M., Rudel, T., and Meyer, T. Host cell interactions and signalling with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Current Opinion in Microbiology 2: 62-70; 1999.

Free radicals and recombination

Brennan, R. J., and Schiestl, R. H. Chloroform and carbon tetrachloride induce intrachromosomal recombination and oxidative free radicals in Saccharomyces cere-visiae. Mutation Research 397:271-278; 1998.

Filkowski, J., Yeoman, A., Kovalchuk, O., and Kovalchuk, I. Systemic plant signal triggers genome instability. Plant Journal 38:1-11; 2004.

Nedelcu, A. M., Marcu, O., and Michod, R. E. Sex as a response to oxidative stress: A twofold increase in cellular reactive oxygen species activates sex genes. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 271:1591-1592; 2004.

Sex and the origin of death

Blackstone, N. W., and Green, D. R. The evolution of a mechanism of cell suicide. Bioessays21: 84-88; 1999.

--Redox control and the evolution of multicellularity. Bioessays 22: 947-953; 2000.

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