General texts

Ridley, Mark. Mendel's Demon: Gene Justice and the Complexity of Life. Phoenix, London, UK, 2001.

Sykes, Bryan. The Seven Daughters ofEve. Corgi, London, UK, 2001. Evolution of the sexes

Charlesworth, B. The evolution of chromosomal sex determination. Novartis Foundation Symposium 244:207-224; 2002.

Whitfield, J. Everything you always wanted to know about sexes. PLoS (Public Library of Science) Biology 2: 0718-0721; 2004.

Uniparental inheritance

Birky, C. W., Jr. Uniparental inheritance of mitochondrial and chloroplast genes: Mechanisms and evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 92:

11331-11338; 1995.

Hoekstra, R. E. Evolutionary origin and consequences of uniparental mitochondrial inheritance. Human Reproduction 15 (suppl. 2): 102-111; 2000.

Selfish conflict

Cosmides, L. M., and Tooby, J. Cytoplasmic inheritance and intragenomic conflict.

Journal of Theoretical Biology 89: 83-129; 1981. Hurst, L., and Hamilton, W. D. Cytoplasmic fusion and the nature of sexes. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 247:189-194; 1992. Partridge, L., and Hurst, L. D. Sex and conflict. Science 281:2003-2008; 1998.

Male sterility in plants

Budar, F., Touzet, P., and de Paepe, R. The nucleo-mitochondrial conflict in cytoplasmic male sterilities revisited. Genetica 117:3-16; 2003. Sabar, M., Gagliardi, D., Balk, J., and Leaver, C. J. ORFB is a subunit of F1F(O)-ATP synthase: Insight into the basis of cytoplasmic male sterility in sunflower. EMBO (European Molecular Biology Organization) Reports 4:381-386; 2003.

Drosophila giant sperm

Pitnick, S., and Karr, T. L. Paternal products and by-products in Drosophila development. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 265: 821-826;


Heteroplasmy in angiosperms

Zhang, Q., Liu, Y., and Sodmergen. Examination of the cytoplasmic DNA in male reproductive cells to determine the potential for cytoplasmic inheritance in 295 angiosperm species. Plant Cell Physiology 44: 941-951; 2003.

Ooplasmic transfer

Barritt, J. A., Brenner, C. A., Malter, H. E., and Cohen, J. Mitochondria in human offspring derived from ooplasmic transplantation. Human Reproduction 16:513-516; 2001. St John, J. C. Ooplasm donation in humans: The need to investigate the transmission of mitochondrial DNA following cytoplasmic transfer. Human Reproduction 17: 19541958; 2002.

Mitochondrial DNA and human evolution

Ankel-Simons, F., and Cummins, J. M. Misconceptions about mitochondria and mammalian fertilisation: Implications for theories on human evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 93:13859-13863; 1996. Cann, R. L., Stoneking, M., and Wilson, A. C. Mitochondrial DNA and human evolution. Nature 325: 31-36; 1987.

Krings, M., Stone, A., Schmitz, R. W., Krainitzki, H., Stoneking, M., and Paabo, S. Neanderthal DNA sequences and the origin of modern humans. Cell 90:19-30; 1997.

Mitochondrial recombination

Eyre-Walker, A., Smith, N. H., and Smith, J. M. How clonal are human mitochondria? Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 266:477-483; 1999.

Hagelberg, E. Recombination or mutation rate heterogeneity? Implications for Mitochondrial Eve. Trends in Genetics 19: 84-90; 2003.

Kraytsberg, Y., Schwartz, M., Brown, T. A., Ebralidse, K., Kunz, W. S., Clayton, D. A., Vissing, J., and Khrapko, K. Recombination of human mitochondrial DNA. Science 304: 981; 2004.

Calibrating the mitochondrial clock

Gibbons, A. Calibrating the mitochondrial clock. Science 279:28-29; 1998.

Cummins, J. Mitochondria DNA and the Y chromosome: Parallels and paradoxes. Reproduction, Fertility and Development 13:533-542; 2001.

Lake Mungo fossil

Adcock, G. J., Dennis, E. S., Easteal, S., Huttley, G. A., Jermiin, L. S., Peacock, W. J., and Thorne, A. Mitochondrial DNA sequences in ancient Australians: Implications for modern human origins. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 98:

537-542; 2001.

Bowler, J. M., Johnston, H., Olley, J. M., Prescott, J. R., Roberts, R. G., Shawcross, W., and Spooner, N. A. New ages for human occupation and climatic change at Lake Mungo, Australia. Nature 421: 837-840; 2003.

Mitochondrial selection

Coskun, P. E., Ruiz-Pesini, E., and Wallace, D. C. Control region mtDNA variants: Longevity, climatic adaptation, and a forensic conundrum. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 100:2174-2176; 2003.

-Beal, M. F., and Wallace, D. C. Alzheimer's brains harbor somatic mtDNA control-

region mutations that suppress mitochondrial transcription and replication. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 101:10726-10731; 2004.

Ruiz-Pesini, E., Mishmar, D., Brandon, M., Procaccio, V., and Wallace, D. C. Effects of purifying and adaptive selection on regional variation in human mtDNA. Science 303: 223-226; 2004.

-Lapeña, A. C., Díez-Sánchez, C., Pérez-Martos, A., Montoya, J., Alvarez, E., Díaz, M.,

Urriés, A., Montoro, L., López-Pérez, M. J., and Enríquez J. A. Human mtDNA haplogroups associated with high or reduced spermatozoa motility. American Journal of Human Genetics67: 682-696; 2000.

The dual genomic control system (co-adaptation)

Ballard, J. W. O., and Whitlock, M. C. The incomplete natural history of mitochondria. Molecular Ecology 13:729-744; 2004.

Blier, P. U., Dufresne, F., and Burton, R. S. Natural selection and the evolution of mtDNA-encoded peptides: Evidence for intergenomic co-adaptation. Trends in Genetics 17: 400-406; 2001.

Ross, I. K. Mitochondria, sex and mortality. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1019:581-584; 2004.

The mitochondrial bottleneck

Barritt, J. A., Brenner, C. A., Cohen, J., and Matt, D. W. Mitochondrial DNA rearrangements in human oocytes and embryos. Molecular Human Reproduction 5:927-933; 1999. Cummins, J. M. The role of mitochondria in the establishment of oocyte functional competence. European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 115S: S23-S29; 2004. Jansen, R. P. S. Germline passage of mitochondria: Quantitative considerations and possible embryological sequelae. Human Reproduction 15 (suppl. 2): 112-128; 2000. Krakauer, D. C., and Mira, A. Mitochondria and germ-cell death. Nature 400:125-126; 1999. Perez, G. I., Trbovich, A. M., Gosden, R. G., and Tilly, J. L. Mitochondria and the death of oocytes. Nature 403:500-501; 2000.

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