Moy

abdomen, limblessness of insect

144-6, 145, 147 abdominal-A (abd-A) gene 24, 25, 42

butterfly larva prolegs and 151, 152

shifts in expression in arthropods

136, 137, 137, 138 wing development and 147, 148 abdominal-A (abd-A) protein arthropod abdominal limbs

144-5, 145, 147 organ primordia formation 73, 74, 75

Abdominal-B (Abd-B) gene 24, 25 vertebrate homologs 42, 85 wing development and 147, 148 Abdominal-B protein, in pigmentation patterning 200-1 Acanthostega 9, 231 achaete gene 204, 208 Achaete protein 34 Achaete-Scute Complex (AS-C) genes 32, 202

butterfly homolog (ASH1) 166, 166

neural and muscle precursors 75 vertebrate homologs 43, 49-50 wing patterning 77 actin genes 179 activation, gene, evolution 222 activators 56, 56-7, 239 segmentation genes 68 -9

AER see apical ectodermal ridge agnathans 174 agouti gene 193, 195—7 Agouti protein 192—3 amnioserosa 69, 70 Amphioxus 105 Hox genes 116 ParaHox genes 117, 118 placodes 172 ancestor, bilaterian (Urbilateria)

121-7, 124 animals first, assembly of toolkit genes 113

phylogenetic tree 6-8, 107 Aniridia gene 49 annelids 239

body design 8, 9 Dll expression 126 fossil record 2, 3, 4 Hox expression patterns

139-40, 140 phylogenetic relationships 8 antenna 81

Antennapedia complex 24, 27, 40 Antennapedia (Antp) gene 24, 25, 42

expression in arthropod heads 139

function 27, 81 mutations 22-3, 23 Antennapedia (Antp) protein, crustacean limbs 145 -6 anteroposterior (A/P) axis bilaterian ancestor 123, 124

conservation of Hox gene function 121-7 Drosophila embryo gene expression patterns 38, 38

genes controlling 35-6, 36, 37

genetic regulatory hierarchy

62-9, 63 integration with dorsoventral axis 73 -5 maternal transcription factor gradients 65 Drosophila wing 76 -7, 78 echinoderm body plan and 183, 185

vertebrate see rostrocaudal axis vertebrate limb 89 -92 ants, wing development 151 anural 239

apical ectodermal ridge (AER) 18, 19, 239

formation and maintenance

89-91, 90, 91, 92 signaling proteins 50, 50-1 snake limb buds 180 appendages arthropod heads 138-9 arthropod trunk, diversification

136, 136-8, 137 epithelial 161, 162 vertebrate paired 175-8, 176 see also bristles; limbs; wings apterous (ap) gene 32, 33, 42, 49, 165

Apterous (ap) protein 77, 78

arachnids 138

Artemia dorsal limb branches 165 Hox gene function 137, 137, 144, 145-6 arthropods body plan 132 derivatives of ancestral gills

163-5, 164 fossil record 2, 3, 4 homeotic transformations 21,

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