350 Main Street, Maiden, MA 02148-5020, USA
108 Cowley Road, Oxford OX4 1JF, UK
550 Swanston Street, Carlton, Victoria 3053, Australia
The right of Sean B. Carroll, Jennifer K. Grenier, and Scott. D. Weatherbee to be identified as the Authors of this Work has been asserted in accordance with the UK Copyright, Designs, and Patents Act 1988.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright, Designs, and Patents Act 1988, without the prior permission of the publisher.
First edition published 2001 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd Second edition published 2005
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Carroll, Sean B.
From DNA to diversity: molecular genetics and the evolution of animal design / Sean B. Carroll, Jennifer K. Grenier, Scott D. Weatherbee.—2nd ed. p. ; cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 1-4051-1950-0 (pbk. : alk. paper)
1. Evolutionary genetics. 2. Molecular genetics. 3. Biological diversity. 4. Morphology (Animals)
[DNLM: 1. Animal Population Groups—genetics. 2. Variation (Genetics) 3. Animal Population Groups—anatomy & histology. 4. Evolution, Molecular. 5. Gene Expression.
QH 408 C319f 2005] I. Grenier, Jennifer K. II. Weatherbee, Scott D. III. Title.
QH390.C37 2005 572.8'38—dc22 2003027991
A catalogue record for this title is available from the British Library.
Set in 10/12pt Garamond by Graphicraft Limited, Hong Kong Printed and bound in the United Kingdom by The Bath Press
The publisher's policy is to use permanent paper from mills that operate a sustainable forestry policy, and which has been manufactured from pulp processed using acid-free and elementary chlorine-free practices. Furthermore, the publisher ensures that the text paper and cover board used have met acceptable environmental accreditation standards.
For further information on Blackwell Publishing, visit our website: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com
CHAPTER 1 A Brief History of Animals 1
Animal origins and the fossil record 2
The animal tree 6
General features of animal design and diversity 8
Evolution and development: DNA and diversity 13
CHAPTER 2 The Genetic Toolkit for Development 17
Before the toolkit—organizers, fields, and morphogens 18
The genetic toolkit 20
Sharing of the genetic toolkit among animals 46
The toolkit and animal design 51
CHAPTER 3 Building Animals 55
Gene regulation in metazoans 55
The architecture of genetic regulatory hierarchies 57
The insect body plan 61
The vertebrate body plan 83
Review: the general logic and mechanisms controlling gene expression in cellular fields 95
CHAPTER 4 Evolution of the Toolkit 103
The history of gene families 104
Case study: evolution of the Hox complex 114
Interpreting the toolkit: inferences about animal evolution 119
The toolkit as developmental potential 127
CHAPTER 5 Diversification of Body Plans and Body Parts 131
Diversity of anterior/posterior body organization within arthropods and vertebrates 132
Morphological diversity within a conserved body plan 142
Regulatory evolution and the diversification of homologous body parts 154
CHAPTER 6 The Evolution of Morphological Novelties 159
What is morphological novelty? 160
Novel functions from older morphological structures 161
The evolution of vertebrate novelties 170
Evolution of radical body plan changes 178
Regulatory evolution and the origin of novelties 185
CHAPTER 7 Morphological Variation and Species Divergence 191
Evolution of animal color patterns 192
Nodal points in regulatory networks and the evolution of character number and pattern 201
Qualitative and quantitative aspects of skeletal evolution in stickleback fish 205
More variation than meets the eye: cryptic genetic variation and the potential for morphological evolution 206
Regulatory evolution and species divergence 208
CHAPTER 8 From DNA to Diversity: The Primacy of Regulatory Evolution 213
Why is regulatory evolution a primary force in morphological evolution? 213
The function and evolution of cz's-regulatory DNA 215
The evolution of regulatory DNA and morphological diversity 230
Was this article helpful?