H

hagfish 172-4

hairs, Drosophila see trichromes hairy gene 35, 39, 43, 133 control of periodic expression 66

vertebrate homologs 43, 85 Halocynthia roretzi 172

haltere 149, 241

genetic regulatory hierarchy 76,

81-3, 82 Ubx expression 149, 150 hand, tetrapod 177, 177-8 HAND2 (dHAND) protein 90, 91 Hb protein see Hunchback protein head arthropod 138-9, 139 vertebrate 172-4, 173 heart development 32, 50

bilaterian ancestor 123, 124 hedgehog gene 36

butterfly eyespots 168, 168-9 evolution 120

notochord development 172 vertebrate homologs 50, 50-1, 119

Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway

butterfly eyespots 168, 168-9 conserved biochemical function 121

insect wing patterning 76 -7, 78, 79, 80

regulation of segment polarity 66-8, 68 helix-loop-helix (HLH) 40, 41, 241

proteins 43, 43 helix-turn-helix 40, 41, 241 Herpailurus yaguarondi 193-4 HES/HER genes, vertebrate segmentation 84, 85 Hh see Hedgehog hierarchy 60, 61, 241

gene regulatory see under gene regulation hindbrain, vertebrate 85 -7, 86 hindlimbs control of identity 94 -5, 95 diversification 153-4 snake 180, 181 hindwings, insect 149-51, 150, 155

holometabolous (insects) 62, 241 homeobox 27-8, 241

homeodomain-containing genes, evolution 113, 114 homeodomains 27-8, 29, 241 in cis-regulatory element evolution 220 divergence in bilaterians 116 evolution in insects 117-19 helix-turn-helix motif 40, 41 homeotic genes 21-7, 241

see also Hox genes homeotic mutations

(transformations) 21-4, 22, 23 cell autonomy 24, 24 cryptic variation 206 environmentally induced mimics 206-8

relevance to evolution 232 homolog 241

homologous body parts 10, 12, 160

homologous genes 108 homonomous 241 hooves 154

horse, black coat color 195 housekeeping genes 20, 104, 241 Hox complex evolution 114-19 expansion 114-16, 115 ParaHox complex and 116-17, 118 Hox genes 241

annelid expression patterns

139-40, 140 anterior group 85, 114, 115, 239 arthropod body plan evolution and 135-8, 136, 137 arthropod head evolution and

138-9, 139 Caenorhabditis elegans 48, 120 central group 114, 115, 239 cephalopod expression patterns

183, 184 cis-regulatory elements see under cis-regulatory elements conserved biochemical functions 120-1

Hox genes (cont'd)

conserved developmental function 121 Drosophila 24—7, 25

evolution of new functions

117-19, 118 homeodomains 27-8, 29 patterns of expression 27, 28 products 40, 42 regulation of expression 71, 72 secondary fields 81-3, 82 duplications 105, 108, 109, 116, 117

evolution 114-19, 115

functions 81

insect evolution of new functions

117-19, 118 expression in head 138-9, 139

homologous limb diversification and 151-2, 152

morphological diversification and 132, 135-6, 136 wing evolution 147 loss 111

methods for visualizing expression 26, 27 morphological diversification and 132, 143-4 posterior group 85, 114, 115, 242

sharing among animals 46 -8 shifts in expression during evolution 142, 143 vertebrate 42, 46-8, 47, 48 axial expression patterns and

140-2, 141 evolution 115, 116 evolution of morphological complexity and 119-20 hindbrain 86 jaw development 173, 174 limb development 89, 92 -4, 93

limb identity 94-5 limblessness of snakes and 180

paired appendages 176,

176-8, 177 rostrocaudal patterning 47, 85-7, 86 Hox ground plan Drosophila 71 vertebrate 85-7 huckebein gene 35, 42 human cis-regulatory element evolution

227 forelimb 12 genetic variation 230 number of toolkit genes 113, 114

hunchback gene 35, 42

evolution in arthropods 135 evolution of Bicoid binding sites

227-9, 228 regulatory interactions 64-5, 65 Hunchback (Hb) protein binding sites 224-5, 226 control of pair-rule stripes 66, 67 gradient 64, 65 hybrids, interspecific 208

imaginal disc 20, 241

in situ hybridization 26, 27

individualization/individuation

8-10, 241 insects 11, 132

body plan development 61-83 bristles see bristles egg organizer 18-20, 19 evolution of segmentation genes

133-5, 134 Hox genes see under Hox genes morphological diversification 142-52

homologous limb fields 151-2, 152

Hox gene expression and

135-6, 136 limbless abdomen 144-6,

145, 147 wing morphologies 149,

149-51 wing number 146-7, 148 segment organizer 19, 20 wings see under wings see also Drosophila melanogaster Invected gene 105

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