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Hox genes 114-16, 115 modularity of body parts 8, 9 morphological diversification 10, 131-40

abdominal limbs 144-6, 145, 146

evolution of segmentation genes 133-5, 134 Hox genes and evolution of heads 138-9, 139 trunk Hox gene expression and 135-8 phylogenetic relationships 6, 7, 8, 107

artificial selection 206-8, 239 AS-C genes see Achaete-Scute

Complex genes ascidians

Hox genes 116 loss of tail 178-9, 179 notochord 160, 171-2 placode homologs 172 ASH1 gene 166, 166 atavism 151, 239 autopod 177, 177-8, 239 axes 239

formation of body 32-7 identifying genes involved 34-5 see also specific axes axial patterning, vertebrate, Hox expression domains and 140-2, 141

Aysheaia pedunculata 3, 231

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