P

paired gene 35, 42 pair-rule genes 242

control of periodic expression

66, 67 Drosophila 35, 37 evolution in arthropods 135 expression patterns 38-9, 39 primary 66 pair-rule proteins 43 Hox gene regulation 71 regulation of segment polarity genes 66 -8, 68 Panthera anca see jaguar ParaHox genes 116-17, 118, 242 parallel evolution 208 paralogs (paralogous genes) 108-9, 110, 242 divergence 111-12 parasegment 27, 242 paraxial mesoderm 83, 84, 242 patched (ptc) gene, butterfly eyespots 168, 168-9 Patched (Ptc) protein 68, 68, 77 pathway 60, 60, 242

Pax3 gene 42 Pax6gene 29, 42 conservation of function 122,

122-3, 125 eye development 49, 49 Pax6 protein, crystallin gene regulation 229 pb gene seeproboscipedia (pb)

gene Pbx genes 42 pdm gene 163-5, 164 pectoral fins 176, 176-7 phaeomelanin 192-3 phenocopy 242

photoreceptor complex, bilaterian ancestor 123, 124 phylogenetic tree 242 animals 6 -8, 107 gene family 108-9, 110 mapping gene duplication events 109-11, 111 pigmentation patterns, Drosophila 197-201

modular cis-regulatory elements and 198, 199 sex- and segment-specific 199-201, 200 see also colors Pikaia gracilens 3 Pitx1 gene 154 Pitx-1 protein 94, 95 placodes, cranial 172-4, 173 pleiotropic (genes) 242 pleiotropy, toolkit genes 46, 214 pleuropod 145, 147 polychaetes 242

Hox expression patterns 139-40, 140 Polycomb proteins 71 polymerase chain reaction (PCR), degenerate 106 polymorphisms 230 Porifera (sponges) 242 fossil record 2, 4 number of toolkit genes 113, 114

phylogenetic relationships 8, 107

Precambrian 2, 4 priapulids 4

Hox genes 114—16, 115 phylogenetic relationships 6, 7, 107

primordia 20, 242

regulation of formation 73—5, 74 see also secondary fields proboscipedia (pb) gene 24, 25, 42 evolution of arthropod heads and 138-9, 139 prolegs 151, 152, 242 promoters 56, 56-7, 242 proneural clusters 34, 75, 242 proteins evolution 104 immunolocalization 26 Proterozoic 242 "Proto-Hox" complex 117, 118 protostomes 6, 7, 242 Hox genes 115, 116 proximodistal axis, vertebrate limb 92-4

pseudocoelomates 8 pseudogene 111, 242 python 11

Hoxexpression 140-2, 141 vestigial hindlimbs 179-80

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