T

T gene (Brachyury) 171, 171-2 tailless gene 42 T-box (Tbx) proteins 89, 171 Tbx4 gene 154 Tbx4 protein 94, 95 Tbx5 gene 90 limb diversification and 154,

155, 156 limb identity and 94, 95 teeth, mammalian 8

TEF-1 gene 49

tetraploidization 105-8, 109, 243 tetrapods 243

autopod (hand) 177, 177-8 limbless 179-80 limbs see limbs, vertebrate tinman (tin) gene 32, 42, 49-50 tlx genes 42 Toll gene 43, 44 trace fossils 2, 4, 5, 243 transcription factors 17, 243 binding to cis-regulatory elements 215 co-evolution with cis-regulatory elements 227-9, 228 comparisons across animal lineages 113, 114 Drosophila genetic toolkit

39-43, 42-3 gene regulation 56, 56 generation of gradients of maternal 64, 65 probability of evolution of binding sites 218, 218-19, 219, 220 repertoire in animal cells 219-20

in signaling pathways 43, 45 structural motifs 40, 41 synergistic interactions 219 transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) 43, 44, 50 bilaterian ancestor 123, 124 evolution 113, 114 transposable elements 221 Tribolium 135 trichromes evolution of patterning 202-4, 203

Ubx regulation of patterning 151-2, 153 trilobite 11 triploblasts 2, 243 Trithorax proteins 71 turtle shell, evolution 160, 180-3, 182

twist (twi) gene 32, 37, 43, 43 dorsoventral coordinate system 69, 70, 71

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