Adenovirus and Gene Therapy

In addition to gene transfer, adenovirus can be used for novel gene therapy 51 . Basically, adenovirus type 5 E1A gene as a potential therapeutic gene in breast and ovarian cancer since 1995 by using cationic liposome as gene delivery system 51-58 . Therapeutic transfer of DNA encoding adenoviral E1A is the best scenario 52 . Deissler and Opalka said that therapeutic applications of E1A were covered by a series of patents which include the description of small variants that could be used for...

Preface

For patient, the main aim of visiting to the physician is to get the best therapy. Therapy has a long history. At the present, advanced biotechnology help improve the medical treatment. Apart from the classical treatment, there are many new emerging means of medical treatment. In this book, the concept of new therapeutic channels, cell, gene and molecular concepts will be focused. Interesting details on concepts for these modern therapies can be found in this...

What is Chaperone

Terminology, chaperone means an adult who takes care of one or more unmarried men or women during social occasions. But this is not the medical specific meaning. In medicine, chaperone therapy is a new concept. Helping or assisting on other molecules is also the ways that chaperone acts. This term is primarily used in molecular biology. How do chaperones operate in cells is a big scientific question 1 . Saibil said that recent advances were giving an improved understanding of the nature of...

References

The role of cellular and humoral factors in infections. Clin Haematol. 1976 Jun 5(2) 449-65. 2 Colten HR, Einstein LP. Complement metabolism cellular and humoral regulation. Transplant Rev. 1976 32 3-11. 3 McMurry JA, Johansson BE, De Groot AS. A call to cellular & humoral arms enlisting cognate T cell help to develop broad-spectrum vaccines against influenza A. Hum Vaccin. 2008 Mar-Apr 4(2) 148-57. 4 Singer JM. Immunology of bacterial and fungal infections. Mt Sinai J Med. 1977...

Why Nanotherapy [

Treatment is an important medical activity. Although it is accepted that prevention is better than treatment therapy for already presented disorder is necessary. Therapy can be either specific or symptomatic treatment aiming at curative or minimize suffer of the illed subject. Modern construction of treatment has been continuous for years and nanotherapy is a modern advent is medical treatment and becomes a modern hope in medicine. At present, it reveals that there are still several limited...

What is Quantum

Quantum is a physical term that implies the smallest discrete amount of some physical property that a system can have. Quantum theory, the branch of physics which is based on quantization, started in 1900 when Planck published his theory explaining the emission spectrum of black bodies 1-3 . The bippoasesic of radiation as well as matter is the heart of the quantum theory. In physics, quantum mechanics is the learning of the relationship between energy or radiation as well as matter, in...

Nanotechnology and Drug Delivery

In addition to designing, drug delivery is another focus of interest 85-91 . Application of nanotechnology for drug delivery is accepted in pharmacology. At present, nanoparticles are considered to have the potential as novel intravascular or cellular probes for both diagnostic (imaging) and therapeutic purposes (drug gene delivery), which is expected to generate innovations and play a crucial role in medicine 87 . The application of nanotechnology on drug delivery can be seen in four important...

Arbovirus and Gene Therapy

In addition to gene transfer, several arboviruses can be used for novel gene therapy. Semliki Forest virus is the one that is frequently used for gene therapy. The CNS gene therapy by Semliki Forest virus is widely researched. Tuittila et al. noted that induction of proinflammatory cytokine mRNA in the CNS by SFV infection seemed to correlate with the rate of viral replication and was not importantly influenced by the virus envelope or nonstructural protein primary structure Semliki Forest...

A Classical Radiotherapy

This makes used of rays, which are mainly X-ray and gamma ray emitted from Cobalt 60, for treatment of disorders. This is broadly used in present medicine. Several cancers are subjected to be treated with radiotherapy. For example, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, an Ebstien-Barr virus related cancer, is subjected to treat by classical radiotherapy or irradiation. Radiotherapy can be used alone or as combination or adjuvant to other therapy such as chemotherapy. Some important aspects on classical...

Immunomics

Immumomics is the modern omics science. Routinely, the outstanding diversity of immune system components together with the complex apperance of the regulatory pathways and network-type interactions come immunology a combinatorial science 16-17 . Immunomics starts from immunoinformatics 18 . Computational analysis is an essential element of immunology research with a major role of immunoinformatics being the management and analysis of immunological data 16 . More advanced analyses of the immune...

Cord Blood Collection Procedure

Cord blood collection should be performed within a total quality system and good manufacturing practice facilities. Protocols should be set based upon risk assessment and cost efficiency 27 . It is recommended that cord blood collection needed to be after the permission for cord blood donation 28 . Surbek et al. reported a high acceptance of umbilical cord blood donation for banking and stem cell transplantation purposes in pregnant women without previous knowledge background 29 . As there are...

Nanosurgery and Nanodentistry

Neurosurgery is the modern way of thought in surgical medicine 31-32 . As previously mentioned, minuted wound is a focus of present surgery. The way of thought is that minuted surgical wound means minuted alignment of blood loss and minimization of intraoperative and post operative complication. Minuted wound also reduce the postoperative hospitalized period for the illed subject. However, the real nanosurgery for human beings has rarely been reached. There are some advents in eye surgery....

Application by Nanopharmacology

Steady progress in the identification of human pharmacogenetic variants and modern discoveries of disease susceptibility genes makes the old notion of one disease one drug untenable 49 . The present way of thought of pharmacology is highly selective pharmacological therapy. This way of thought has been proposed for centuries. This way of thought was firstly propagated by Paul Ehrlich. The best case study of magic bullet way of thought is adapted for cancer therapy 50-51 . There is a great need...

Finding Epitope

To find a peptide candidate for a vaccine, the starting point is to find appropriate epitpes. Different means for epitope mapping are available at present 29 . It should be noted that synthetic peptide vaccines aiming at the induction of a protective response against malignant disorders are widely trialed but despite their success in animal experiments they do not yet live up to their promise in humans 30 . Mapping for possible epitopes seems to be a difficult step. The evidence accumulating...

Survival after PDT

In 2004, Berr noted that tumor ablation with PDT combined with biliary stenting reduces cholestasis and significantly improves median survival time to 11.5 to 16.2 months 10 . Berr also said that time to progression lasted approximately 6 months indicating that PDT was required twice annually 10 . In 2003, Ortner et al. performed a prospective, open-label, randomized, multicenter study with a group sequential design compared PDT in addition to stenting group A with stenting alone group B in...

Quality of Life after PDT

Berr noted that PDT costed less and enhances quality of life and survival time as compared with chemotherapy 10 . Ortner et al. found that quality of life after PDT in addition to stenting was significant higher than stenting alone 27 . Ortner et al. noted that qality of life indices improved dramatically and remained stable after PDT 28 . They concluded that there were clear evidences that PDT improved quality of life in the patients with cholangiocarcinoma 28 . Many similar studies 31-32 also...

Chaperone Therapy

Chaperone therapy is a new concept of molecular therapy making use of chaperone. Modification of the folding is the action that brings therapeutic activity of chaperone. Guzhova said that since Hsp70 was found to disturb many signal pathways of apoptosis in many points, the high chaperone expression could lead to an increased resistance of tumor cells to anticancer drugs 9 . A 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin 17-AAG is an anticancer agent currently in clinical trials 10 . This molecule...