Antibody Treatment

Antibody treatment makes use of administration of immunoglobulin or antibody for curative purpose. This is famous for a long time for many diseases. Good examples are tetanus, rabies and Kawasaki disease. Important interesting reports on antibody treatment will be given as idea to the readers in Table 2.

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Viroj Wiwanitkit

Table 1. Important reports on levamisole as immunomodulator

Authors

Details

Levy [54]

Levy reported on levamisole and cellular immunity in rheumatoid arthritis [54]. Reduced B cell function, immunoglobulin and autoantibody levels could be observed with levamisole treatment [54].

Taki and Schwartz [55]

Taki and Schwartz reported levamisole as an immunopotentiator for T cell deficiency [55].

Rosenthal et al. [56]

Rosenthal et al. reported on the effect of levamisole on peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis [56].

Runge and Rynes [57]

Runge and Rynes discussed on balancing effectiveness and toxicity of levamisole in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis [57]. Runge and Rynes said that because effective doses were poorly tolerated, and tolerable lower doses were relatively ineffective, levamisole was not recommended as standard treatment of rheumatoid arthritis [57].

Giulling et al. [58]

Giulling et al. reported on prediction of the effectiveness of levamisole immunotherapy by the sensitivity of blood lymphocytes to the drug [58].

Lvey [59]

Levy reported on correlations of clinical and laboratory effects of treatment with levamisole in autoimmune disease [59]. Levy concluded that laboratory studies of lymphocyte mitogen response could help contribute towards better management of patients receiving levamisole therapy [59].

Goebel et al. [60]

Goebel et al. reported on levamisole-induced immunostimulation in spondylarthropathies [60]. Goebel et al. concluded that levamisole might affect on defective immunoregulation in spondylarthropathies and, by improving the clinical conditions, led to a change in the course of this disease [60].

Fostiropoulos et al. [61]

Fostiropoulos et al. reported on once weekly administration of levamisole in rheumatoid arthritis [61]. Fostiropoulos et al. reported that once weekly was as effective as 3-day-weekly administration of levamisole, but resulted in fewer side-effects [61].

Verhaegen et al. [62]

Verhaegen et al. reported on immunologic evaluation of rheumatoid arthritis and therapy with levamisole [62]. Verhaegen et al. said that levamisole could restore cellmediated immune reactivity and modify the natural course of rheumatoid arthritis [62].

Rosenthal et al. [63]

Rosenthal et al. reported on immunotherapy with levamisole in rheumatic diseases [63]. Rosenthal et al. concluded that this treatment demonstrated some potential hazardous complications of the drug and required physical and laboratory examinations at short intervals [63].

Pinals et al. [64]

Pinals et al. reported on a double-blind comparison of high and low doses of levamisole in rheumatoid arthritis.

Pinals et al. concluded that levamisole was effective [64].

Seki et al. [65]

Seki et al. studied on induction of E-rosette-promoting factor in human plasma by levamisole [65]. Seki et al. concluded that levamisole might mediate an increased secretion of humoral factor with E-rosette-promoting activity, even from such a rudimentary thymus as in the partial DiGeorge syndrome [65].

Skotnicki [66]

Skotnicki reported on agranulocytosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with levamisole [66].

Table 2. Important reports on antibody treatment

Authors

Details

Muhamuda et al. [67]

Muhamuda et al. reported on use of neutralizing murine monoclonal antibodies to rabies glycoprotein in passive immunotherapy against rabies [67]. Muhamuda et al. concluded that the new murine monoclonal antibodies were found to be 2,000 times more potent than commercial ERIG in terms of effective protein concentration and neutralizing titer [67].

Baba [68]

Baba reported on Effect of immunoglobulin therapy on blood viscosity and potential concerns of thromboembolism focusing of Kawasaki disease [68]. Baba said that although there was only a few epidemiological data as to the prevalence of thromboembolism associated with immunoglobulin therapy therapy, the occurrence of these complications should be taken into consideration [68].

Kuo et al. [69]

Kuo et al. said that patient characteristics and intravenous immunoglobulin product could affect eosinophils in Kawasaki disease [69].

Khan et al. [70]

Khan et al. said that both patient characteristics and intravenous immunoglobulin product-specific mechanisms could affect eosinophils in immunoglobulin-treated Kawasaki disease [70].

Moreno et al. [71]

Moreno et al. reported on coronary involvement in infants with Kawasaki disease treated with intravenous gamma-globulin [71]. Of interest, Moreno et al. observed a high rate of infants who developed coronary arterial complications, which is similar to the one reported in children who do not receive immunotherapy [71].

de Melker and Steyerberg [72]

de Melker and Steyerberg reported on function of tetanus immunoglobulin in case of injury [72].

Miranda-Filho Dde et al. [73]

Miranda-Filho Dde et al. reported on randomised controlled trial of tetanus treatment with antitetanus immunoglobulin by the intrathecal or intramuscular route [73]. Miranda-Filho Dde et al. concluded that patients treated with antitetanus immunoglobulin by the intrathecal route showed better clinical progression than those treated by the intramuscular route [73].

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