Antibody Treatment

Antibody treatment makes use of administration of immunoglobulin or antibody for curative purpose. This is famous for a long time for many diseases. Good examples are tetanus, rabies and Kawasaki disease. Important interesting reports on antibody treatment will be given as idea to the readers in Table 2.


Viroj Wiwanitkit

Table 1. Important reports on levamisole as immunomodulator



Levy [54]

Levy reported on levamisole and cellular immunity in rheumatoid arthritis [54]. Reduced B cell function, immunoglobulin and autoantibody levels could be observed with levamisole treatment [54].

Taki and Schwartz [55]

Taki and Schwartz reported levamisole as an immunopotentiator for T cell deficiency [55].

Rosenthal et al. [56]

Rosenthal et al. reported on the effect of levamisole on peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis [56].

Runge and Rynes [57]

Runge and Rynes discussed on balancing effectiveness and toxicity of levamisole in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis [57]. Runge and Rynes said that because effective doses were poorly tolerated, and tolerable lower doses were relatively ineffective, levamisole was not recommended as standard treatment of rheumatoid arthritis [57].

Giulling et al. [58]

Giulling et al. reported on prediction of the effectiveness of levamisole immunotherapy by the sensitivity of blood lymphocytes to the drug [58].

Lvey [59]

Levy reported on correlations of clinical and laboratory effects of treatment with levamisole in autoimmune disease [59]. Levy concluded that laboratory studies of lymphocyte mitogen response could help contribute towards better management of patients receiving levamisole therapy [59].

Goebel et al. [60]

Goebel et al. reported on levamisole-induced immunostimulation in spondylarthropathies [60]. Goebel et al. concluded that levamisole might affect on defective immunoregulation in spondylarthropathies and, by improving the clinical conditions, led to a change in the course of this disease [60].

Fostiropoulos et al. [61]

Fostiropoulos et al. reported on once weekly administration of levamisole in rheumatoid arthritis [61]. Fostiropoulos et al. reported that once weekly was as effective as 3-day-weekly administration of levamisole, but resulted in fewer side-effects [61].

Verhaegen et al. [62]

Verhaegen et al. reported on immunologic evaluation of rheumatoid arthritis and therapy with levamisole [62]. Verhaegen et al. said that levamisole could restore cellmediated immune reactivity and modify the natural course of rheumatoid arthritis [62].

Rosenthal et al. [63]

Rosenthal et al. reported on immunotherapy with levamisole in rheumatic diseases [63]. Rosenthal et al. concluded that this treatment demonstrated some potential hazardous complications of the drug and required physical and laboratory examinations at short intervals [63].

Pinals et al. [64]

Pinals et al. reported on a double-blind comparison of high and low doses of levamisole in rheumatoid arthritis.

Pinals et al. concluded that levamisole was effective [64].

Seki et al. [65]

Seki et al. studied on induction of E-rosette-promoting factor in human plasma by levamisole [65]. Seki et al. concluded that levamisole might mediate an increased secretion of humoral factor with E-rosette-promoting activity, even from such a rudimentary thymus as in the partial DiGeorge syndrome [65].

Skotnicki [66]

Skotnicki reported on agranulocytosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with levamisole [66].

Table 2. Important reports on antibody treatment



Muhamuda et al. [67]

Muhamuda et al. reported on use of neutralizing murine monoclonal antibodies to rabies glycoprotein in passive immunotherapy against rabies [67]. Muhamuda et al. concluded that the new murine monoclonal antibodies were found to be 2,000 times more potent than commercial ERIG in terms of effective protein concentration and neutralizing titer [67].

Baba [68]

Baba reported on Effect of immunoglobulin therapy on blood viscosity and potential concerns of thromboembolism focusing of Kawasaki disease [68]. Baba said that although there was only a few epidemiological data as to the prevalence of thromboembolism associated with immunoglobulin therapy therapy, the occurrence of these complications should be taken into consideration [68].

Kuo et al. [69]

Kuo et al. said that patient characteristics and intravenous immunoglobulin product could affect eosinophils in Kawasaki disease [69].

Khan et al. [70]

Khan et al. said that both patient characteristics and intravenous immunoglobulin product-specific mechanisms could affect eosinophils in immunoglobulin-treated Kawasaki disease [70].

Moreno et al. [71]

Moreno et al. reported on coronary involvement in infants with Kawasaki disease treated with intravenous gamma-globulin [71]. Of interest, Moreno et al. observed a high rate of infants who developed coronary arterial complications, which is similar to the one reported in children who do not receive immunotherapy [71].

de Melker and Steyerberg [72]

de Melker and Steyerberg reported on function of tetanus immunoglobulin in case of injury [72].

Miranda-Filho Dde et al. [73]

Miranda-Filho Dde et al. reported on randomised controlled trial of tetanus treatment with antitetanus immunoglobulin by the intrathecal or intramuscular route [73]. Miranda-Filho Dde et al. concluded that patients treated with antitetanus immunoglobulin by the intrathecal route showed better clinical progression than those treated by the intramuscular route [73].

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