Levamisole

Levamisole, L-1-2, 3, 5, 6--tetrahydro-6- phenylimidazo (2, 1-b)-thiazol monohydrochloride, is another widely used immunomodulative drug. This is mentioned in many literatures for a long time. Levamisole is first introduced as a broad spectrum anthelmintic, an immunotherapeutic agent with anti-anergic properties, and is the first member of a potential new class of immunologically active, probably thymomimetic compounds [47]. Senn et al. said that levamisole increased colony formation, and altered colony-stimulating activity types detected in leucocyte-conditioned medium, makes this drug a promising candidate for treatment of selected leukaemic states and in preleukaemia [48]. Amery and Gough said that the main application of levamisol for immunotherapy was for immune deficiencies or as immune dysregulation syndromes such as rheumatoid arthritis and cancer [49]. Levamisole can play as an antianergic chemotherapeutic agent as it restores cellmediated immunity in immunodepressed patients and extends the remission period [50]. It can expand the number of long-term survivors when used as an adjunct to cytoreductive therapy in several animal cancer experiment [50]. Levamisole can be absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and from injection site and is extensively distributed in all tissues [50]. Levamisole also stimulates phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear cells or macrophages when added to the mentioned cells or given to donor animals and human beings [50-52]. Renoux said that immunomodulators given by modifying the functions of the host cells involved in defences against invaders, and the effectiveness of an immunotherapeutic drug relied on characteristics of the individual host, therefore, therapy with this drug should be individualized [53].

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