Stem cell therapy is a new concept in medical science. This treatment concept is the use of cell for cell therapy. Application of progenitor to specific defective part aiming at the regenerative for treatment of specific pathological condition is the main concept of stem cell therapy. This approach is a novel treatment and under trialed. Indeed, stem cell is known for years. However, the introduction of stem cell therapy for treatment in medicine is a new thing. Historically, classical approach to derive new human embryonic stem cell line includes the harvest of the inner cell mass from a human embryo. However, this cannot avoid destroying the embryo and raise the critical ethical issue. As previously mentioned, the first sign of first begins at 12th week after fertilization and this is called embryo status [4-5]. There should be a necessity to re-address the issue of when life begins and the dignity of human embryos [4-5].
The other approach to derive a new human embryonic stem cell line is from somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technique or cloning technique. This famous technique is firstly used previously in reported on magic cloned Dolly sheep. This method was accepted be a good potential candidate for providing patient-specific stem cell line that would be used for transplantation without possible problem on rejection due to immune system [4-5]. Presenting, this approach has not been proved successful in human for many reasons. The main ethical concern is that cloning brings several ethical problems. Who will be the mother and father? Religiously, this is also cross the acceptable principle. Cloning human for harvest organ to treat the other is totally unacceptable. In addition to the somatic cell nuclear transfer or cloning technique, a new mean that based on using donor nucleus for nuclear transfer has been modified to prevent the implantation potential of the embryo created and this can manage the ethical problem [4-5]. This is a present acceptable modification. This is also the basement for concept of present stem cell therapy.
Briefly, the concept for each stem cell therapy can be as the followings:
a) Harvesting of Stem Cell
Harvesting of stem cell is the first step for collection of stem cell for further medical usage. In adult, as previously mentioned, the most important source of stem cell is the borne marrow because stem cell is stem cell is still existed in bone marrow for generation of blood cell in blood circulation. Therefore, the basic medical procedure for stem cell collection in adult is bone marrow aspiration. This should be performed by well trained clinical pathologist or hematologist. The site for bone marrow collection is iliac crest. Presently, there is another new way for collection of stem cell. This makes use of cord blood and called cord blood stem cell collection. This can be done without invasive procedure to the donor. This is mainly used in many setting. More details on cord blood collection will be further described in this chapter.
b) Storage of Stem Cell
Storage of stem cell is usually required because stem cell is usually not suddenly used after stem cell collection. Therefore, there must be a process to prepare and store stem cell for future usage. Before storage, stem cell must be typed by typing technique for all basic parameters. It must also be cleaned. At present, there many commercial stem cell storage center and stem cell bank.
c) Usage of Stem Cell
Usage of stem cell is the final step. When it is indicated and there is no contraindication for stem cell therapy, stem cell should be ordered from the bank for usage. For using stem cell it must be well matched and prepared. Basically, it must be conditioned and promoted for further development into target desired cells specific for each treatment. This steps makes used of many advanced biotechnology procedures. The success of any stem cell treatment is usually determined by this step.
As a conclusion, stem cell therapy has been accepted as an emerging technology that could change the present approach toward curing many chronic disorders and degenerative conditions. As previously mentioned, stem cell therapy can be applied for regenerative medicine which is another promising area of medical therapy for the coming years. Cell and tissue replacement therapy could be the final solution for present several incurable diseases. However, stem cell therapy also brings up many controversial issues from the medical ethics. This will be further discussed in this article.
For example, there are many arguments on the
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