Escherichia coli is also applied for gene therapy. It is the most widely used non viral vector . Therapeutic benefits of E.coli -based gene modification have been observed in vaccination against infectious diseases, immunotherapy against cancer, and topical delivery of immunomodulatory cytokines in inflammatory bowel disease . E.coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) which catalyzes the cleavage of 9-(2-deoxy-beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-6-methylpurine (MeP-dR) is widely applied for gene therapy . The development of E. coli PNP anticancer gene therapy was the novel in this area . Recently, Cai et al. reported on experimental studies on PNP suicide gene therapy of hepatoma . Cai et al. concluded that high-level bystander effects of this system resulted in significant anti-tumor responses to hepatoma gene therapy, especially in vivo . Hughes et al. also reported on Bystander killing of melanoma cells using this system .
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