Vaccine is a specific important tool in medicine. Due to the principle of immunity, human beings require immune to defend any alien foreign bodies. However, immunity cannot be functional if there is no previous exposure. This means it has to be a memory before immune generation or the human beings must experience previous foreign bodies' invasion. However, in some cases, immunity is slightly generated and cannot fight with external invasion of align foreign bodies and this brings mortality and morbidity. Therefore, simulating the invasion of align foreign bodies to prepare for real invasion is needed and very useful. This is the concept of vaccination. Vaccination is defined as a primary prevention. Vaccine can prevent before real existence. Vaccine is a mode of simulating interaction as previously described.
Vaccination is classified as an active immunization. This means tit makes uses of human beings physiological process to create immune by itself. There are several vaccine at present. Recommendation for vaccination might be different in different settings. Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) is the basic public health one in all countries. With use of vaccine, controls of many infectious diseases are feasible. Pox is an example of infectious disease that can be controlled by vaccine. This infection is already got rid of by succeed in global vaccination. The presently widely used vaccine include rabies vaccine, measles vaccine, rubella vaccine, Japanese encephalitis vaccine, hepatitis B vaccine, hepatitis A vaccine, influenza vaccine, varicella vaccine, pneumococcal vaccine, pertussis vaccine, diphtheria vaccine, BCG and toxiod. However, at present, there are attempts to develop more vaccines for real clinical usage/. This is the aim of preventive medicine. In addition, there are attempts to develop vaccine for expanded usefulness. This is the origin of therapeutic vaccine. This is the new trend to use vaccine as treatment tool. This is classified as immunotherapy. The details of this new way of immunotherapy will be further detailed and discussed in this chapter. To produce a therapeutic vaccine, it might be a basic knowledge on biotechnology and immunology. More details on this item can be seen in this chapter.
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