The Monogamy Method

Make Him a Monogamy Junkie

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Monogamy as Maximally Constrained Polygyny

As discussed at length elsewhere (Chapais 2008, pp 162-168), two major correlates of the parental collaboration hypothesis are empirically supported the costs of raising human children are disproportionately high owing to our larger brain and its correlate, delayed maturation (Kaplan et al. 2000), and the father's economic contribution does alleviate the costs of maternity (Gurven 2004). But one must not confuse the actual working of the human family with its origins. Studies of the mating and parental care systems of mammals in general suggest that pair-bonding did not initially evolve as parental partnerships. Stable breeding bonds in mammals are primarily mating arrangements. In a phylogenetic analysis of mammalian mating and parental care systems, Brotherton and Komers (2003) found that in most monogamously breeding species that exhibit parental collaboration, paternal care had evolved after monogamy was already established, and this for reasons other than parental collaboration....

Pollen brushcomb see scopa

Gr. polys, many gamein, to marry Polygyny and or polyandry. polygamous a. see monogamy. polygyny n. Gr. polys, many gyne, female 1. The mating of a male with more than one female. see monogamy. 2. (ARTHRO Insecta) In Hymenoptera, the coexistance of several to many queens in the same colony. a. Primary polygyny Two or more queens found a colony together. b. Secondary polygyny One queen founds a colony with others added after the colony is founded. polygynous a.

Origins of the Multifamily Community

Where should one start when attempting to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the exogamy configuration Interestingly, the answer to this question is contained in the timing of the evolution of its most basic feature, the modal composition of human groups. That composition is the multifamily community (Rodseth et al. 1991) and its evolutionary origin appears to date back to the Pan-Homo split, some 6-7 million years ago (Fig. 2.4). The multifamily community is a rare form of group that combines two independent elements a multimale-multifemale composition and a mating system featuring stable breeding bonds (monogamous or polygynous). On logical grounds, a multifamily system may evolve through two different paths. According to the first possibility, the multimale-multifemale composition came first, followed by the evolution of stable breeding bonds, as illustrated in Fig. 2.5. Humans and their two closest relatives, chimpanzees and bonobos, form multimale-multifemale groups, which...

Cells Communicate With Each Other Through Signals And Receptors

One important mechanism by which cells acquire and maintain distinct developmental potentials is by communicating with one another. Cellular communication may create a difference between initially equivalent cells, or it may exaggerate subtle preexisting differences between two cells. Communication between cells is mediated by two types of molecules referred to as signals and receptors. When a cell sends a message, it liberates a signal, which is sensed by receptors present on neighboring cells (Fig. 1.8). A receiving cell senses a signal by virtue of the signal sticking to receptors on its surface. When a signal sticks to its receptor (or binds to its receptor, in the jargon), the receptor changes shape and becomes activated. Activation of the receptor alters gene expression in the responding cell, thereby defining the developmental potential of that cell. Signals and receptors are exquisitely monogamous molecules. A signal typically binds to only one receptor, and the receptor...

Mind the Crack Concluding Observations

What are the implications of this discussion for universal sex differences and the gap between studies of human and nonhumans Early evolutionary studies identified predicted sex roles, but failed to consider variation. Nowadays, with more sophisticated theoretical models and richer empirical evidence, we see that the roles of men and women can be highly variable. The Pimbwe study shows how some women, despite common mammalian constraints, can use multiple sequential pair bonds to out-reproduce their monogamous counterparts. Similarly, the broader discussion of the relationship between pair bonds and paternal care reveals limits to the conventional view of marriage as a trade of sex for paternal resources. Men and women have negotiable roles in marriage, for which models from behavioral ecology (beyond conventional parental investment theory) and economics can be brought to bear. In what sense do we differ from nonhuman primates in this respect Anthropologists once viewed regularly...

Why Be Encephalized Costs

To express ecological theory in a very simplified way, the distribution of abiotic factors drives the distribution of vegetation, which in turn drives the distribution of animals. Lifestyles (diet, sociality, and sexual selection) are then driven by the distribution of animals and plants. If biotic and abiotic resources are spatially and temporally predictable and in relatively low-density clumps, a specialized, conservative, territorial polygynist with monoparental care may do better than a generalist, opportunistic, invasive, gregarious monogamist with biparental care. The reverse would apply to spatially and temporally unpredictable resources found in abundant patches. We would then expect selection to act on cognition to provide the information-processing capacity that best suits each lifestyle, with accompanying selection on encephalization (Bennett and Harvey, 1985a). Testing the idea that omnivory should be associated with brain size is thus not an ecological prediction on...

Reconstruction of the Ancestral Pattern of Primate Social Organization

The promiscuous systems of the monotremes, didelphids, dasyurids, and insectivores, as well as the spatial monogamy of tree shrews and elephant shrews are very similar to the dispersed multimale multifemale system and the dispersed monogamy found in cheirogaleids and lorisiforms. The spatial aspects of social organization are in fact the same in promiscuous and dispersed polygynandrous systems on the one hand and in spatial and dispersed monogamy on the other hand. The difference is that in each case social networks are present in the latter (i.e., in cheirogaleids and lorisiforms), but not in the former system (i.e., in all other groups). As a result, M ller and Thalmann (2000) have suggested that the most likely scenario regarding the origin of primate social organization is that a dispersed multimale multife-male pattern arose from promiscuity. Such a dispersed multimale multifemale pattern is found in all the species of mouse lemur (Microcebus sp.), which have so far been...

Approaches to Studying Sexual Conflict

There are three general approaches to studying sexual conflict. The first method is exemplified by the now classic study of seminal proteins in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) (Rice 1996 Holland and Rice 1999). These proteins originate in accessory glands, are transferred (with sperm) to female mates, and influence females in a number of ways that benefit males, such as (1) increasing the rate of female egg-laying (Chen 1984) (2) decreasing female receptivity to additional matings (Ravi Ram and Wolfner 2007) and (3) improving sperm competition by displacing the sperm of previous copulators (Harshman and Prout 1994 Clark et al. 1995). Seminal fluids are apparently toxic, such that prolonged exposure to them elevates female mortality (Chapman et al. 1995 Clark et al. 1995 Lung et al. 2002). In order to test the prediction that monogamous mating systems engender less sexual conflict than polygynous systems, Holland and Rice (1999) randomly assigned individual D. melanogaster to...

Being sneaky Alternative male strategies

In a monogamous species in which males and females enter into long-term reproductive relationships, parents will have an interest in each other's survival because only through the survival of their partners will they be able to produce any offspring. The situation is much different for species with short-lived or no pair bonds. In this case, selection can favor traits of one individual in the pair even if they decrease the partner's fitness.

The Evolution of Stable Breeding Bonds

The transition from sexual promiscuity to enduring breeding bonds in the course of hominid evolution is the single-most important event that launched the exogamy configuration on its evolutionary path. How did that happen Answers to this question have traditionally focused on the adaptive aspects of pair-bonding, but they must also take into account the relevant phylogenetic constraints set by the ancestral mating system of hominids. Up to 80 of human societies combine monogamy with polygyny, with the majority of families being monogamous in any given society. Logically, then, hominids went from chimpanzee bonobo-like sexual promiscuity to the predominantly monogamous multifamily structure. The primate data suggest that this evolution involved two transitions (1) from sexual promiscuity to generalized polygyny (as in the multiharem structure of hamadryas baboons), and (2) from generalized polygyny to generalized monogamy. A direct passage from sexual promiscuity to generalized...

Social Organization And Behavior Group Composition

Early field studies noted the variability in sifaka group composition (e.g., Petter et al., 1977). However, they suggested that . . . the ancestral group structure of Propithecus is monogamous, and that a normal group was composed of a pair of adults and two to three offspring of different ages (p. 379), proposing that the larger observed group sizes may be due to habitat disturbance (possibly representing aggregations of multiple family groups). However, field studies have confirmed for eastern sifakas (as did Jolly, 1966, and Richard, 1978, for western sifakas) that monogamous groups are not the rule. P. edwardsi at Talatakely (Ranomafana) live in groups of three to nine individuals, with a mean of 4.61 (Wright, 1995 Pochron et al., 2004), while those at the Vatoharanana trail system live in groups of 2-8, with a mean of 4.3 (Hemingway, 1995). Groups of 3-6 individuals (mean 4.8) were observed for P. diadema at Mantadia (Powzyk, 1997), while P. diadema at Tsinjoarivo have been...

Counterstrategy Male Female Association

Van Schaik and Dunbar's (1990) hypothesis that social monogamy is an antiinfanticide strategy remains one of the most interesting versions of this hypothesis. Evidence that infanticide has selected for social monogamy is strong in some nonprimate taxa such as burying beetles (Nicrophorus spp.) and tropical house wrens (Troglodytes aedon), but interpretations of the gibbon data have generated divergent conclusions (Palombit 1999, 2000 Sommer and Reichard 2000 Fuentes 2002 van Schaik and Kappeler 2003). Recent tests of the hypothesis in prosimians, such as fork-marked lemurs (Phaner furcifer), avahis (Avahi occidentalis), and spectral tarsiers (Tarsius spectrum), have not consistently supported the hypothesis (Schulke and Kappeler 2001 Thalmann 2001 Gursky 2002). However, this intriguing hypothesis awaits further direct testing in the taxa it primarily addresses the gibbons. Sexual conflict hypotheses for male-female bonding are potentially relevant to understanding human pair-bonding,...

The Unusual Women of Mpimbwe

The traditional marriage pattern, reported as clan controlled, monogamous, and accompanied by bridewealth (Willis 1966), must have been seriously challenged by the high rates of labor outmigration in the colonial period (Tambila 1981). Marriage is now effectively characterized by cohabitation, initiated with a facultative transfer of bridewealth and a celebration (Fig. 4.1). Polygyny appears never to have been common. Nowadays, marriage can be defined as sharing in the production and consumption of food and shelter, with the expectation of exclusive sexual relations. Divorce is permitted and, like marriage, can be defined by the physical movement of one or both partners out of the house, requiring no legal or formal procedures. Divorces occur often when one spouse starts an extramarital relationship, with both sexes tending to claim responsibility for abandoning the relationship. At divorce, children under the age of 8 are supposed to stay with the mother (or the mother's kin),...

Introduction And Physical Description Of Indri Indri

Indri indri is a large-bodied lemur with numerous adaptations to facilitate its ecological niche of folivory within the rainforests of eastern Madagascar. More precisely, Indri is well adapted to life in the trees its limb morphology allows for a highly arboreal lifestyle, while digestive specializations permit a diet that is almost extensively folivorous with limited frugivory. An adult male and female live together as a monogamous pair and quickly identify their presence in a forest with a deafening duet of long calling. This remarkable vocalization can last over 3 minutes and is typically introduced with a communal roar followed by a song proper of both ascending and descending notes, with a male and female timing their phrases to attain a stable dueting pattern (Powzyk and Thalmann, 2003). The long call is termed contagious as one group finishes their long call, a neighboring group commences and so the calling continues sequentially through the forest. Yet despite their loud...

Evolution in History

Women was one of the accepted rewards of power. Even in many contemporary societies, where at least a pretense of monogamy is expected of rulers, the old instincts have not disappeared. True, procreation played no evident role in the drive to power of dictators like Hitler or Stalin. But Mao Tse-tung, as revealed in the memoir by his personal physician Li Zhisui, lived like an emperor, with villas and swimming pools and a stream of girls procured by the Cultural Work Troupe of the Central Garrison Corps. He was happiest and most satisfied when he had several young women simultaneously sharing his

Breaking The Rules

Curiously, we also see sexual dimorphisms in many socially monogamous species those in which males and females pair up and rear young together. Since males don't seem to be competing for females, why have they evolved bright colors and ornaments This seeming contradiction actually provides further support for sexual selection theory. It turns out that in these cases, appearances are deceiving. The species are socially monogamous but not actually monogamous. One of these species is the splendid fairy wren of Australia, studied by my Chicago colleague Stephen Pruett-Jones. At first glance, this species looks like the paragon of monogamy. Males and females usually spend their entire adult lives socially bonded to each other, and they codefend their territory and share parental care. Yet they show striking sexual dimorphism in plumage males are a gorgeous iridescent blue and black, while females are a dull grayish-brown. Why Because adultery is rife. When it comes time to mate, females...

Sexual Selection

There are also differences between sexes within species in parental investment strategies. In some species the male invests little in the offspring beyond his initial contribution of sperm, while the female is the sole caretaker from conception until the offspring is mature. Because the female carries the fetus and produces the milk, the female strategy is to invest largely in time, health, nutrition, and energy. Because the male does not carry the fetus or produce milk, the male strategy is best if he mates with numerous partners. The male strategy is further adaptive since male paternity is unknown without genetic testing. Males have alternative strategies in species that form monogamous pair-bonds, like gibbons, where males contribute largely to the offspring through territory protection and mate guarding. Sexual dimorphism the differences in the size, color, or anatomy between males and females of a species is exaggerated in species where mating strategy differences are...

Reproduction

Of course, there is much less privacy in the baboon and chimpanzee worlds, but they may mate secretly if codes of status and hierarchy are being breached. Also, for most primates, it is more often better to mate with more than one partner, not just in one mating cycle but throughout life. Most humans use the monogamous strategy, that is they form enduring pair-bonds (either serially or for life), but many humans are polygamous, forming long-lasting relationships between one male and multiple females instead. In either case, there is much less human male competition and also an unusually high level of male parental investment. Because of their extended period of growth and maturation, mostly dealing with the incredible amount of time required to grow the large human brain, human infants are altricial, which means that they are vulnerable and highly dependent on their parents after they are born. The opposite condition is to be precocious like newborn horses Humans clearly have their...

Discussion

Previous studies have varied in length, continuity, and in seasons and reproductive stages sampled (Table 5). Some, though not all, of the behavioral variation found among different populations of Varecia is likely due to short-term observations and to a lack of sampling during the hot rainy season, when it is possible to clearly distinguish small groups (i.e., of two to four individuals) clearly as part of a larger community network. If not observed in the hot rainy season, small groups could be misidentified as monogamous, pair-bonded family groups rather than as part of a single, larger community with a multimale multifemale social structure.

Mammals

A large amount of variance in the size of both adult and hatchling avian brains can be explained by the altricial versus precocial dichotomy in development mode. Birds that develop slowly and require extensive parental care are born with relatively smaller brains than birds that are mobile only a few minutes or hours after birth. The reverse applies to adult brain size, where altricial birds have larger brains than do precocial ones (Portmann, 1946 Bennett and Harvey, 1985a, 1985b). In Bennett and Harvey's study, most of the ecological variables (e.g., diet, habitat) that showed a relationship with relative forebrain size in univariate analyses became nonsignificant when development mode was included in multivariate statistics. Only mating system (monogamous polygynous) and mode of prey capture (moving from a perch vs. other categories) remained significant predictors of relative size of the brain and forebrain. All large-brained avian clades develop slowly, but the reverse is not...

Neanderthal Society

What we mean by 'modern' patterns of social organization has been discussed fully in a recent article by Lars Rodseth and others in Current Anthropology ('The human community as a primate society' 1992). Rodseth et al. provide a systematic comparison of various aspects of social organization across a broad range of modern (principally hunter-gatherer) human communities, set against those of other primate species. What emerges is that while the groups of non-human primates display a great variety of social structures, from the solitary, monogamous families of Asian gibbons to the male-dominated harem groups of mountain gorillas (Smuts et al. 1987), there are a number of specific patterns which are characteristic of the great majority of present-day human communities but which occur much less commonly, if at all, in groups of non-human primates. These include the strong tendency to form permanent relationships between particular pairs of males and females throughout life the tendency...

Infanticide

In monogamous species, males and females have either a short or a long-term interest in the fitness of their partners. Non-monogamous species don't have the same concerns. But how would they evolve if they did Brett Holland and William Rice designed an experiment with fruit flies to investigate this question. They separated the flies into two groups I For one group of flies, they continued to grow the flies together in large groups in which multiple non-monogamous matings would occur. In this case, an individual fly's fitness is maximized by producing as many offspring as it can, regardless of the consequences for its partners. I In the other group, they raised the flies in monogamous pairs. In this treatment, the fitness of the two flies is interconnected. Flies whose behaviors maximize their partner's fitness also maximize their own fitness. I The male flies in the monogamous pairs had evolved to be less harmful to the female flies. The original male flies were rough the evolved...

Genome

Chimpanzees and australopithecines and the earliest ape-men fossils, males were one-and-a-half times the size of females, in modern people the ratio is much less. The steady decline of that ratio in the fossil record is one of the most overlooked features of our prehistory. What it means is that the mating system of the species was changing. The promiscuity of the chimp, with its short sexual liaisons, and the harem polygamy of the gorilla, were being replaced with something much more monogamous a declining ratio of sexual dimorphism is unambiguous evidence for that. But in a more monogamous system, there would now be pressure on each sex to choose its mate carefully in polygamy, only the female is choosy. Long pairbonds shackled each ape-man to its mate for much of its reproductive life quality rather than quantity was suddenly important. For males it was suddenly vital to choose young mates, because young females had longer reproductive lives ahead of them. A preference for...

Pair Bonds in Humans

Phylogenetic analyzes of the relationship between mating systems and paternal care shed light on this origins debate. In mammals, Brotherton and Komers (2003) show that monogamy evolved more often in the absence of paternal care than in its presence, and propose that paternal care most likely arose subsequently (although in birds biparental care may have preceded avian pair bonds, Burley and Johnson 2002). Similar conclusions are being reached for nonhuman primates. Since direct paternal care is present only in some species, it is most likely that monogamy is a preadaptation facilitating the evolution of paternal care rather than a consequence (Palombit 1999 van Schaik and Kappeler 2003). In short, despite the apparent universality of pair bonds in contemporary human populations and cogent models that these evolved to subsidize the high costs of reproduction and encephalization (Kaplan et al. 2000 Gurven and Kaplan 2006), there is little clear comparative evidence that pair bonds...

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