Info

5 Flooding the Earth 73

Oceanic overspill 73 Lake outbursts 76 Giant tsunamis 80 Impact superfloods 86

6 Evolving life 91

The tempo ofevolution 91 Macroevolution versus microevolution 99 Micromutations or macromutations? 102 Hierarchy or continuum? 105

7 Destroying life 110

What are mass extinctions? 110 What causes mass extinctions? 113 How fast do mass extinctions occur? 129

8 History of life 133

Directionality 133 Stasis and change 140 Diversity cycles 149

9 Life in control? 156

The Gaia hypothesis 157 Criticizing Gaia 160 Testing Gaia 161

Bibliography Index

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