Plates

5.1 Single tsunami landmark from 4,500 BP on Barbados 81

5.2 Boulder ridge on the southern coast of Anguilla 82

5.3 Tsunami ridge at Eleutherea, Bahamas 83

Figures

2.1 Layers of the solid Earth 12

2.2 Tectonic plates, spreading sites, and subduction sites 14

2.3 The cooling and recycling system of the asthenosphere, lithosphere, and mesosphere 15

2.4 Passive margins 17

2.5 Models of Rodinia at 750 million years ago 19

2.6 A possible grand circulation of Earth materials 21

2.7 The plume model and plate model contrasted 24

2.8 The expanding Earth, showing the growth from around 220 million years ago, through the present, to 250 million years in the future 27

2.9 Biogeographical sister areas and matching geological outlines of the Pacific 28

3.1 Meteor Crater, Arizona 36

3.2 Size distribution for the cumulative number of NEAs larger than a particular size 40

3.3 Formation of a simple hypervelocity impact crater 42

3.4 Simple and complex impact structures 45

3.5 The distribution of known impact craters and structures 46

4.1 Orbital forcing and the occurrence of ice ages according to

Milutin Milankovitch 52

4.2 Selected profiles from the GRIP ice core, Summit, central Greenland 57

4.3 Difference in the strength of the solar beam at mid-month dates of Berger (1978) paired by equal geometry of the incoming solar beam 61

4.4 Cartoon of a complete 'snowball' episode 63

4.5 Regime diagrams showing the effects of cloud cover and clear-sky 66

4.6 An example of an open water solution to a near-snowball Earth model 67

4.7 Climatic megacycles during the Phanerozoic 68

4.8 Phanerozoic climatic indicators 71 5.1 Schematic of the development of the Black Sea sedimentary sequence 75

5.2 Glacial Lake Missoula and the Channeled Scabland 78

5.3 Sites and regions with trustworthy tsunami evidence 84

5.4 Tsunami envelope after the impact of a 1.1-km diameter asteroid 87

5.5 A hypothetical sequence of events following the impact of mantle-penetrating bolide in a shallow sea 89

6.1 Styles of evolutionary change 93

6.2 Examples of gradual speciation and punctuated speciation in the fossil record 95

6.3 Selected character changes in Eurasian mammoth lineage 98

6.4 Evolution of trunk Hox gene expression patterns 105

6.5 The evolution of a bet-hedging strategy 108

7.1 Diversity and diversity turnover of marine genera 111

7.2 Kill curves resulting from impacting bolides of varying diameters 112

7.3 Proportion of genus extinction 114

7.4 Speculative flow diagram linking large-body impacts to mass extinctions 119

7.5 Multiple impact Cretaceous-Tertiary scenario 122

7.6 Extinction rates of marine genera versus time 125

7.7 Oxygen and carbon levels over time and relative to present-day levels 128

7.8 Predicted maximum altitude over time for hypothetical species 129

7.9 The extinction of life at the end of the Permian in southern China 131

8.1 Key events in the history of life associated with the evolution of the genome 134

8.2 Diversity curve for marine faunal families 137

8.3 Phanerozoic diversity changes 138

8.4 A-B-C patterns in dominance turnover of mammalian ecomorphs in North America during the Cenozoic 145

8.5 Testing for coordinated stasis in the Middle Devonian Hamilton

Group of central New York 148

8.6 Extinction rate per genus for 49 sampling intervals from the mid-Permian (Leonardian) to Recent 151

8.7 Cycles in Phanerozoic genus diversity 152

8.8 Fourier spectrum of time series shown in Figure 8.7 153

8.9 Diversity of short-lived and long-lived genera 154

9.1 Views on the control wielded by life over the ecosphere 157

9.2 Predictions of planetary temperature in the Daisyworld model 159

9.3 Conceptual diagrams of planetary albedo and land surface albedo 163

Tables

3.1 Earth-crossing asteroids with diameters of 1 km or more 38

4.1 Orbital forcing cycles 51

6.1 Simplified version of Gould's 'grand analogy' 101

7.1 Possible causes of mass extinctions 116

7.2 Proposed causes of Phanerozoic mass extinction events 118

7.3 Catalogue of destruction following a large bolide impact 119

7.4 Catalogue of recovery following a large bolide impact 120 8.1 Evolution of cell type and gene number 136

Plates, figures, and tables xi

8.2 Examples of palaeontological studies showing evidence of persistence and punctuated change 150

9.1 Components of the surface energy budget, water cycle, and terrestrial productivity 162

Was this article helpful?

0 0

Post a comment